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Table 1 Comparisons of sociodemographic factors and clinical scales according to the presence of depression

From: Risk and protective factors of depression in the general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in Korea

  Total Depression (+) Depression (-) Statistics P-value
(N=1492) (N=312, 20.9%) (N=1180, 79.1%)
Sex, n (%), Female 748 (50.1) 158 (50.6) 590 (50.0) χ2 = 0.041 .840
Age, mean (SD), years 40.3 (11.8) 37.5 (11.2) 41.0 (11.9) t = 4.654 <.001
Region, n (%)
 Capital area 500 (33.5) 112 (35.9) 388 (32.9) χ2 = 3.257 .196
 Daegu 493 (33.0) 109 (34.9) 384 (32.5)
 Gwangju 499 (33.4) 91 (29.2) 408 (34.6)
Marital status, n (%), Unmarried 755 (50.6) 199 (63.8) 556 (47.1) χ2 = 27.411 <.001
Education, n (%), High school graduate/dropout or less 255 (17.1) 62 (19.9) 193 (16.4) χ2 = 2.153 .142
Occupational type, n (%), Unemployed or temporary workers 305 (20.4) 93 (29.8) 212 (18.0) χ2 = 21.275 <.001
Medical security, n (%), Medicaid 69 (4.6) 20 (6.4) 49 (4.2) χ2 = 2.852 .091
Religious status, n (%), yes 580 (38.9) 110 (35.3) 470 (39.8) χ2 = 2.173 .140
Smoking status, n (%), yes 318 (21.3) 88 (28.2) 230 (19.5) χ2 = 11.171 .001
Underlying mental illness, n (%), yes 67 (4.5) 27 (8.7) 40 (3.4) χ2 = 15.942 <.001
Underlying physical illness, n (%), yes 398 (26.7) 77 (24.7) 321 (27.2) χ2 = 0.804 .370
Quarantine experience, n (%), yes 33 (2.2) 11 (3.5) 22 (1.9) χ2 = 3.148 .076
Frequency of exercise
 Three times or more per week before COVID-19 pandemic, n (%) 891 (59.7) 191 (61.2) 700 (59.3) χ2 = 0.369 .544
 Three times or more per week during COVID-19 pandemic, n (%) 464 (31.1) 71 (22.8) 393 (33.3) χ2 = 12.814 <.001
COVID-19-related questionnaire
 Stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic 18.2 (4.6) 20.2 (4.5) 17.7 (4.5) t = -8.754 <.001
 Fear of COVID-19 infection 3.8 (0.7) 3.9 (0.8) 3.8 (0.7) t = -2.764 .006
 Difficulty in outside activities 4.2 (0.6) 4.3 (0.6) 4.2 (0.6) t = -0.619 .536
 Disturbance in eating and sleeping 2.8 (0.9) 3.3 (0.9) 2.7 (0.9) t = -9.845 <.001
 Stigma of COVID-19 2.9 (0.8) 3.0 (0.8) 2.8 (0.8) t = -4.383 <.001
 Fear of blame for COVID-19 infection 3.6 (1.0) 3.7 (0.1) 3.5 (1.0) t =- 3.049 .002
Psychiatric scales
 UCLA loneliness scale-3 5.2 (1.7) 6.7 (1.7) 4.8 (1.5) t =-17.959 <.001
 Gratitude questionnaire-6 30.2 (6.1) 26.9 (6.2) 31.0 (5.7) t = 10.970 <.001
  1. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level.