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Table 1 Sociodemographic, sentence, prison, family history and QRISK2 variables with caseness for depression and anxiety

From: Screening male prisoners for depression and anxiety with the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 at NHS Healthcheck: patterns of symptoms and caseness threshold

  PHQ-9 GAD-7
< 10 (N = 752) ≥10 to < 15 (N = 204) ≥15 (N = 249) p-value < 10 (N = 827) ≥10 to < 15 (N = 161) ≥15 (N = 217) p-value
Age Mean (sd) 44.4(8.1) 43.6 (6.7) 42.2 (5.8) < 0.001 45.9 (8.5) 42.7 (6.3) 43.1 (7.0) < 0.001
 Missing 0 0 0   0 0 0  
Ethnicity     0.608     0.251
 White 604 (80.6) 171 (83.8) 212 (85.5)   673 (81.7) 131 (81.9) 183 (84.3)  
 Black 31 (4.1) 8 (3.9) 7 (2.8)   29 (3.5) 11 (6.9) 6 (2.8)  
 Asian 49 (6.5) 9 (4.4) 10 (4.0)   53 (6.4) 6 (3.8) 9 (4.2)  
 Mixed/ Other 65 (8.7) 16 (7.5) 19 (7.7)   69 (8.4) 12 (7.5) 19 (8.8)  
 Missing 3 0 1   3 1 0  
Sentence Length (Years)     0.046     0.005
 < 1 142 (30.9) 33 (28.0) 51 (35.2)   143 (28.0) 47 (48.5) 37 (31.9)  
 1–2 76 (16.5) 35 (29.7) 33 (22.8)   99 (19.4) 14 (14.4) 31 (26.7)  
 2–3 53 (11.5) 12 (10.2) 11 (7.6)   61 (11.9) 6 (6.2) 9 (7.8)  
 3–4 41 (8.9) 7 (5.9) 7 (4.8)   42 (8.2) 5 (5.2) 8 (6.9)  
 4+ 148 (32.2) 31 (26.3) 43 (29.7)   166 (32.5) 25 (25.8) 31 (26.7)  
 Missing 292 86 104   316 64 101  
IMD     0.311     0.299
 1–2 201 (27.4) 52 (26.5) 87 (35.7)   221 (27.5) 49 (31.4) 70 (32.9)  
 3–4 123 (16.8) 34 (17.4) 49 (20.1)   136 (16.9) 25 (16.0) 45 (21.1)  
 5–6 53 (7.2) 15 (7.7) 16 (6.6)   55 (6.8) 14 (9.0) 15 (7.0)  
 7–8 62 (8.5) 17 (8.7) 15 (6.2)   67 (8.3) 9 (5.8) 18 (8.5)  
 9–10 26 (3.6) 5 (2.6) 6 (2.5)   30 (3.7) 3 (1.9) 4 (1.9)  
 No fixed address 268 (36.6) 73 (37.2) 71 (29.1)   295 (36.7) 56 (35.9) 61 (28.6)  
 Missing 19 8 5   23 5 4  
Prison     < 0.001     < 0.001
 A, life sentence 15 (2.0) 2 (1.0) 8 (3.2)   18 (2.2) 0 (0.0) 7 (3.2)  
 B, remand prison 212 (28.2) 58 (28.4) 38 (15.3)   191 (23.1) 50 (31.1) 32 (14.8)  
 C, medium term 74 (9.8) 11 (5.4) 11 (4.4)   76 (9.2) 10 (6.2) 9 (4.2)  
 D, remand prison 163 (21.7) 43 (21.1) 105 (42.2)   218 (26.4) 63 (39.1) 107 (49.3)  
 E, < 6 months to parole 103 (13.7) 53 (26.0) 59 (23.7)   122 (14.8) 20 (12.4) 35 (16.1)  
 F, sex offenders 185 (24.6) 37 (18.1) 28 (11.2)   201 (24.3) 18 (11.2) 27 (12.4)  
 Missing 0 0 0   0 0 0  
Family History     < 0.001     0.112
 Yes 343 (48.8) 66 (35.1) 89 (39.2)   410 (53.4) 91 (61.1) 119 (59.2)  
 No 360 (51.2) 122 (64.9) 138 (60.8)   358 (46.6) 58 (38.9) 82 (40.8)  
 Missing 49 16 22   59 12 16  
Smoking status     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Yes 593 (78.9) 27 (86.8) 19 (92.4)   658 (79.6) 143 (88.8) 199 (91.7)  
 No 159 (21.1) 177 (13.2) 230 (7.6)   169 (20.4) 18 (11.2) 18 (8.3)  
 Missing 0 0 0   0 0 0  
Alcohol consumption Median (IQR) 3 (0.0–8.0) 5 (0.0–13.0) 4 (0.0–18.3) < 0.001 3 (0.0–8.3) 4 (0.0–17.0) 4 (0.0–19.3) 0.002
 Missing 8 1 1   7 2 3  
Height (M) Mean (sd) 1.76 (0.1) 1.77 (0.1) 1.78 (0.1) 0.036 1.77 (0.1) 1.76 (0.1) 1.78 (0.1) 0.197
 Missing 5 2 2   6 2 1  
Weight (kg) Mean (sd) 84.37 (15.3) 84.40 (17.2) 81.87 (16.2) 0.048 84.60 (15.5) 82.49 (16.0) 82.03 (16.7) 0.018
 Missing 2 2 0   4 0 0  
BMI     0.046     0.045
< 25 275 (36.6) 83 (41.1) 116 (47.0)   303 (36.8) 67 (41.9) 104 (48.1)  
≥25 < 30 304 (40.5) 70 (34.7) 84 (34.0)   328 (39.8) 59 (36.9) 71 (32.9)  
≥30 172 (22.9) 49 (24.3) 47 (19.0)   193 (23.4) 34 (21.2) 41 (19.0)  
 Missing 1 2 2   3 1 1  
Waist (cm) Mean (sd) 93.71 (12.0) 94.42 (13.0) 91.20 (11.6) 0.020 94.23 (12.0) 91.00 (11.5) 91.78 (12.0) 0.002
 Missing 59 15 10   65 8 11  
QRISK2 Score     0.015     0.008
 < 10% 668 (88.8) 177 (86.8) 235 (94.4)   730 (88.3) 143 (88.8) 207 (95.4)  
 ≥10% 84 (11.2) 27 (13.3) 14 (5.6)   97 (11.70) 18 (11.2) 10 (4.6)  
 Missing 0 0 0   0 0 0  
Exercise status     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Active 318 (44.6) 74 (38.0) 56 (23.1)   346 (44.2) 46 (29.7) 56 (26.3)  
 Moderately active 132 (18.5) 31 (15.9) 39 (16.1)   139 (17.8) 28 (18.1) 35 (16.4)  
 Moderately inactive 93 (13.0) 22 (11.3) 38 (15.6)   101 (12.9) 19 (12.3) 33 (15.5)  
 Inactive 170 (23.8) 68 (34.9) 110 (45.3)   197 (25.2) 62 (40.0) 89 (41.8)  
 Missing 39 9 6   20 6 28  
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) Mean (sd) 77.60 (11.6) 78.19 (10.8) 78.18 (11.6) 0.428 77.87 (11.6) 77.62 (11.1) 77.79 (11.2) 0.883
 Missing 0 0 0   0 0 0  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) Mean (sd) 126.40 (15.1) 125.45 (14.8) 124.14 (16.8) 0.043 126.05 (15.3) 126.66 (15.0) 124.08 (16.1) 0.157
 Missing 1 0 0   1 0 0  
Serum creatinine (umol/L) Mean (sd) 80.95 (12.5) 80.38 (11.6) 77.74 (12.2) 0.026 80.64 (12.3) 80.70 (12.9) 77.98 (12.0) 0.100
 Missing 426 125 145   456 107 133  
HbA1c mmol/mol Mean (sd) 37.06 (8.4) 37.84 (9.0) 36.13 (4.6) 0.607 37.14 (8.3) 38.17 (9.8) 35.65 (4.5) 0.356
 Missing 489 137 186   196 121 497  
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) Mean (sd) 1.20 (0.3) 1.16 (0.3) 1.17 (0.3) 0.380 1.19 (0.3) 1.19 (0.4) 1.16 (0.2) 0.545
 Missing 454 126 164   486 114 144  
Plasma glucose level (mmol/L) Mean (sd) 5.04 (1.0) 5.16 (0.8) 5.12 (0.7) 0.508 5.02 (0.7) 5.50 (1.9) 5.06 (0.8) 0.464
 Missing 612 176 199   669 140 178  
  1. PHQ-9 < 10 = no/mild depression, > 10 to < 15 = moderate depression, > 15 moderately severe or severe depression; GAD-7 < 10 = no/mild/moderate anxiety, > 10 to < 15 = moderately severe anxiety, > 15 = severe anxiety