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Table 1 Associations between Rural-Urban levels of Birth place and Psychosis Phenotypes (N = 47,004)

From: Impact of urban birth and upbringing on expression of psychosis in a Chinese undergraduate population

  Psychoticism
n = 1961 (4.2%)
Paranoia
n = 2572 (5.5%)
Schizotypal symptoms
n = 867 (1.8%)a
Nuclear syndrome
n = 116 (0.2%)
Diagnosed Schizophrenia
n = 63 (0.1%)
N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR N (%) OR (95%CI)
Birth Exposure
 Level 1 (Rural)
n = 24,479 (52.1%)
1112 (56.7) Ref (1) 1346 (52.3) Ref (1) 440 (50.8) Ref (1) 59 (50.9) Ref (1) 34 (54.0) Ref (1)
 Level 2
n = 15,734 (33.5%)
580 (29.6) 0.80 (0.72–0.89)*** 848 (33.0) 0.97 (0.89–1.06) 288 (33.2) 1.00 (0.86–1.16) 38 (32.7) 1.02 (0.67–1.53) 14 (22.2) 0.69 (0.37–1.29)
0.95 (0.85–1.07) 1.18 (1.07–1.30)*** 1.26 (1.07–1.48)** 1.30 (0.85–1.98) 0.73 (0.39–1.38)
 Level 3 (Urban)
n = 6791 (14.4%)
269 (13.7) 0.86 (0.75–0.99)* 378 (14.7) 1.00 (0.89–1.13) 139 (16.0) 1.12 (0.93–1.36) 19 (16.4) 1.18 (0.70–1.98) 15 (23.8) 1.74 (0.94–3.22)
1.15 (0.99–1.34) 1.34 (1.18–1.53)*** 1.59 (1.29–1.96)*** 1.71 (1.00–2.93) 2.07 (1.10–3.87)*
  1. Adjusted for age and sex in the first row. Second row for each variable additionally adjusted for PHQ-9 score
  2. aNuclear syndrome excluded from analysis
  3. *P < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001