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Table 3 Associations between critical timing of Exposure to the Urban environment between birth and 15 years (N = 47,004)

From: Impact of urban birth and upbringing on expression of psychosis in a Chinese undergraduate population

  Psychoticism
n = 1961 (4.2%)
Paranoia
n = 2572 (5.5%)
Schizotypal symptoms
n = 867 (1.8%)a
Nuclear syndrome
n = 116 (0.2%)
Diagnosed Schizophrenia
n = 63 (0.1%)
N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI)
During 1st 5 years (birth - 5 years)
 0 years (Ref)
n = 36,548 (77.8%)
1512 (77.1) Ref (1) 1941 (75.5) Ref (1) 626 (72.2) Ref (1) 85 (73.3) Ref (1) 39 (61.9) Ref (1)
 1–3 years
n = 810 (1.7%)
50 (2.6) 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 59 (2.3) 1.03 (0.72–1.47) 20 (2.3) 0.88 (0.49–1.56) 3 (2.6) 1.26 (0.29–5.58) 5 (7.9) 7.01 (1.90–25.86)**
 4-5 years
n = 9646 (20.5%)
399 (20.3) 0.92 (0.65–1.31) 572 (22.2) 0.98 (0.72–1.31) 221 (25.5) 0.96 (0.60–1.52) 28 (24.1) 1.27 (0.35–4.64) 19 (31.2) 2.44 (0.55–10.78)
During 2nd 5 years (6–10 years)
 0 years (Ref)
n = 35,400 (75.3%)
1457 (74.3) Ref (1) 1862 (72.4) Ref (1) 599 (69.1) Ref (1) 83 (71.6) Ref (1) 38 (60.3) Ref (1)
 1–3 years
n = 984 (2.1%)
58 (3.0) 1.37 (0.91–2.07) 78 (3.0) 1.39 (0.98–1.96) 21 (2.4) 0.67 (0.37–1.21) 4 (3.4) 2.03 (0.53–7.85) 3 (4.8) 2.41 (0.42–13.81)
 4-5 years
n = 10,620 (22.6%)
446 (22.7) 1.28 (0.81–2.02) 632 (24.6) 1.20 (0.82–1.77) 247 (28.5) 1.01 (0.56–1.82) 29 (25.0) 2.01 (0.33–12.17) 22 (34.9) 1.67 (0.20–13.92)
During 3rd 5 years (11–15 years)
 0 years (Ref)
n = 34,021 (72.4%)
1407 (71.8) Ref (1) 1797 (69.9) Ref (1) 564 (65.1) Ref (1) 84 (72.4) Ref (1) 36 (57.1) Ref (1)
 1–3 years
n = 1327 (2.8%)
53 (2.7) 0.72 (0.52–1.00)* 68 (2.6) 0.77 (0.58–1.02) 29 (3.3) 1.03 (0.68–1.57) 1 (0.9) 0.14 (0.02–1.15) 3 (4.8) 1.79 (0.52–6.19)
 4-5 years
n = 11,656 (24.8%)
501 (25.5) 1.01 (0.73–1.40) 707 (27.5) 1.11 (0.84–1.47) 274 (31.6) 1.37 (0.90–2.09) 31 (26.7) 0.24 (0.05–1.22) 24 (38.1) 1.57 (0.35–7.06)
  1. Adjusted for age, sex and PHQ-9 score
  2. For 1st five years also adjust for total years in 2nd and 3rd; for 2nd adjust for total in 1st and 3rd; for 3rd adjust for total in 1st and 2nd
  3. aNuclear syndrome excluded from analysis
  4. *P < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001