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Table 1 Sociodemographic and health characteristics of caregivers of unipolar depression + SI and caregivers of unipolar depression + no SI

From: The burden of caring for adults with depression and suicidal ideation in five large European countries: analysis from the 2020 National Health and Wellness Survey

Characteristics Caregivers of unipolar depression + SI
(N = 554)
Caregivers of unipolar depression + no SI
(N = 837)
p valuea
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age (years), mean ± SD 40.7 ± 15.2 43.5 ± 15.2 < 0.001
 Gender, n (%)
  Female 298 (53.8) 487 (58.2) 0.106
  Male 256 (46.2) 350 (41.8)  
 Marital Status, n (%)
  Married or living with partner 362 (65.5) 540 (64.9) 0.831
  Not Married 191 (34.5) 292 (35.1)  
 Education, n (%)
  University degree 207 (37.8) 270 (32.5) 0.040
  Less than university degree 340 (62.2) 562 (67.5)  
 Annual Household Income, n (%)
  Less than €49,999 or £39,999 409 (76.9) 599 (76.6) 0.906
  €50,000 or £40,000 or more 123 (23.1) 183 (23.4)  
 Employment Status, n (%)
  Employed 382 (69.0) 513 (61.3) 0.014
  Not employed 113 (20.4) 211 (25.2)  
  Retired 59 (10.6) 113 (13.5)  
Health characteristics
Body Mass Index, n (%) 0.137
  Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 33 (6.0) 30 (3.6)  
  Normal weight (18.5 to < 25.0 kg/m2) 217 (39.2) 330 (39.4)  
  Overweight (25.0 to < 30.0 kg/m2) 154 (27.8) 266 (31.8)  
  Obese (30.0 kg/m2 and above) 109 (19.7) 161 (19.2)  
  Decline to answer 41 (7.4) 50 (6.0)  
BMI, mean ± SD (valid n) 26.3 ± 7.0
(n = 513)
26.4 ± 6.3
(n = 787)
0.684
Smoking Status, n (%) < 0.001
  Current 244 (44.0) 276 (33.0)  
  Former 118 (21.3) 194 (23.2)  
  Never 192 (34.7) 367 (43.8)  
Alcohol use, n (%) 0.188
  Currently consume 439 (79.2) 638 (76.2)  
  Currently do not consume 115 (20.8) 199 (23.8)  
Exercise,b n (%) 421 (76) 571 (68.2) 0.002
CCI Categories, n (%) 0.161
  0 368 (66.4) 594 (71.0)  
  1 106 (19.1) 146 (17.4)  
  2+ 80 (14.4) 97 (11.6)  
CCI, mean ± SD 0.71 ± 1.47 0.53 ± 1.16 0.012
Self-reported medical diagnosis of anxiety, n (%) 0.141
  Yes experienced + No diagnosis 84 (15.2) 137 (16.4)  
  Yes experienced + Yes diagnosis 188 (33.9) 249 (29.7)  
  Did not experience 282 (50.9) 451 (53.9)  
Self-reported medical diagnosis of depression, n (%) < 0.001
  Yes experienced + No diagnosis 125 (22.6) 155 (18.5)  
  Yes experienced + Yes diagnosis 265 (47.8) 314 (37.5)  
  Did not experience 164 (29.6) 368 (44.0)  
Self-reported medical diagnosis of sleep problems, n (%) 0.018
  Yes experienced + No diagnosis 148 (26.7) 205 (24.5)  
  Yes experienced + Yes diagnosis 82 (14.8) 91 (10.9)  
  Did not experience 324 (58.5) 541 (64.6)  
PHQ- 9 score, n (%) < 0.001
  Minimal, 0–4 85 (15.3) 213 (25.4)  
  Mild, 5–9 112 (20.2) 282 (33.7)  
  Moderate, 10–14 156 (28.2) 180 (21.5)  
  Moderately severe, 15–19 116 (20.9) 106 (12.7)  
  Severe, 20–27 85 (15.3) 56 (6.7)  
  PHQ- 9 score, mean ± SD 12.3 ± 6.8 9.1 ± 6.3 < 0.001
  1. Note: CCI Charlson comorbidity index, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire (9 questions), SI Suicidal ideation
  2. aStatistical testing for categorical variables were calculated using Chi-square test and for continuous variables using ANOVA, with statistically significant values in bold
  3. bExercise was defined as yes/no reporting exercising for 20 min or more at least on one occasion in the past 30 days