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Table 3 Univariable Regression Models for Caregiver Burden (Cut-Off Point of 39/40) on Characteristics of Individuals with Schizophrenia and Informal Caregivers (N = 65)

From: Perceived burden and family functioning among informal caregivers of individuals living with schizophrenia in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

   Univariable Model
Characteristics of Individuals with Schizophrenia N Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex
 Male 43 REF  
 Female 22 3.91 (1.13; 13.50) 0.031
Relationship Status
 Partnered, living together 10 REF  
 Partnered, not living together 11 4.50 (0.63; 32.29) 0.135
 Single, not partnered 44 1.59 (0.40; 6.31) 0.511
Educational Level
 Primary or less 24 REF  
 Secondary or higher 41 0.43 (0.14; 1.29) 0.132
Worked in the Past 3 Months
 No 28 REF  
 Yes 37 0.39 (0.13; 1.15) 0.087
Financial Contribution to Household
 No 43 REF  
 Yes 22 0.58 (0.20; 1.66) 0.310
Age 65 0.96 (0.90; 1.02) 0.164
Length of Illness 65 0.97 (0.91; 1.04) 0.398
Disability (WHODAS) 65 1.00 (0.97; 1.02) 0.939
Self-Efficacy (GSE) 65 1.03 (0.95; 1.12) 0.528
Instrumental Support (PROMIS) 65 1.01 (0.97; 1.06) 0.511
Internalized Stigma (ISMI) 65 1.44 (0.51; 4.03) 0.491
PANSS Positive 65 0.93 (0.83; 1.05) 0.239
PANSS Negative 65 0.92 (0.82; 1.03) 0.139
PANSS General 65 0.96 (0.90; 1.03) 0.253
PANSS Total 65 0.97 (0.94; 1.01) 0.153
Characteristics of Informal Caregivers N Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex
 Male 22 REF  
 Female 43 1.73 (0.60; 4.95) 0.310
Educational Level
 Primary or less 41 REF  
 Secondary or higher 24 0.96 (0.34; 2.73) 0.941
Worked in the Past 3 Months
 No 31 REF  
 Yes 34 4.68 (1.57; 13.95) 0.006
Living with individual with schizophrenia
 No 10 REF  
 Yes 55 0.69 (0.16; 2.98) 0.623
Age 65 0.98 (0.94; 1.02) 0.377
Family Functioning (SCORE-15) 65 11.12 (3.22; 38.40) < 0.001
Hope (HHI) 65 0.78 (0.69; 0.89) < 0.001
Religiosity (IR Subscale of DUREL) 65 0.61 (0.35; 1.08) 0.091
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. WHODAS World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, GSE General Self-Efficacy scale, PROMIS Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, ISMI Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, SCORE-15 Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation, HHI Herth Hope Index, DUREL Duke University Religion Index