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Table 2 Factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress among physicians: results from bivariate and multivariate analysis

From: Mental health condition of physicians working frontline with COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh

Factors Depression (N = 347) Anxiety (N = 347) Stress (N = 347)
Yes (N = 192) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) Yes (N = 168) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) Yes (N = 122) P-value Adjusted OR (95% CI)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Place of work
 Government Hospital 55 (48.7) 0.083 0.59 (0.25 - 1.39) 47 (41.6) 0.077 0.62 (0.29 - 1.30) 48 (42.5) 0.047 4.08 (1.77 - 9.41)
 Non-government Hospital 137 (58.5) Ref 121 (51.7) Ref 74 (31.6) Ref
Type of hospital
 COVID hospital 46 (56.1) 0.873 1.25 (0.49 - 3.22) 42 (51.2) 0.561 1.87 (0.85 - 4.15) 34 (41.5) 0.171 0.69 (0.30 - 1.59)
 Non-COVID hospital 146 (55.1) Ref 126 (47.5) Ref 88 (33.2) Ref
Sex
 Male 108 (48.9) 0.001* Ref 94 (42.5) 0.004* Ref 61 (27.6) < 0.001 Ref
 Female 84 (66.7) 1.54 (0.69 - 3.44) 74 (58.7) 1.11 (0.56 - 2.19) 61 (48.4) 2.16 (1.09 - 4.30)
Age (in years)
 <= 27 94 (53.4) 0.465 2.06 (0.92 - 4.59) 82 (46.6) 0.49 1.58 (0.79 - 3.16) 59 (33.5) 0.517 1.03 (0.52 - 2.05)
 >  27 98 (57.3) Ref 86 (50.3) Ref 63 (36.8) Ref
Marital status
 Married 99 (55.0) 0.897 Ref 87 (48.3) 0.975 Ref 63 (35.0) 0.949 Ref
 Unmarried or Others 93 (55.7) 2.17 (0.95 - 4.99) 81 (48.5) 1.28 (0.63- 2.62) 59 (35.3) 1.23 (0.61- 2.47)
Previously diagnosed chronic diseases
 Yes 69 (59.0) 0.33 2.61 (1.14 – 5.99) 62 (53.0) 0.224 1.88 (0.93 - 3.79) 50 (42.7) 0.035 2.51 (1.22 - 5.18)
 No 123 (53.5) Ref 106 (46.1) Ref 72 (31.3) Ref
Previous history of diagnosed mental health issues
 Yes 33 (76.7) 0.003* 3.45 (1.07 - 11.10) 27 (62.8) 0.044 0.98 (0.37 - 2.59) 28 (65.1) < 0.001 4.22 (1.48 - 12.02)
 No 159 (52.3) Ref 141 (46.4) Ref 91 (30.9) Ref
History of availing/receiving psychotherapy
 Yes 25 (78.1) 0.006* 0.97 (0.24 - 3.95) 25 (78.1) < 0.001* 2.87 (0.82 - 10.05) 14 (43.8) 0.285 0.68 (0.25 -1.85)
 No 167 (53.0) Ref 143 (45.4) Ref 108 (34.3) Ref
Direct contact with COVID-19 patient
 Yes 158 (54.1) 0.291 Ref 135 (46.2) 0.061 Ref 103 (35.3) 0.917 Ref
 No 34 (61.8) 0.90 (0.30 - 2.69) 33 (60.0) 2.15 (0.83 - 5.55) 19 (34.5) 0.43 (0.18 - 1.05)
Satisfied with PPE (N = 46)
 Yes 13 (59.1) 0.741   11 (50.0) 0.894   8 (36.4) 0.57  
 No 33 (55.0) 31 (51.7) 26 (43.3)
Multiple mental health issues present
 Yes 168 (98.2) < 0.001* 0.01 (0.00 - 0.02) 149 (87.1) < 0.001* 0.02 (0.01 - 0.04) 115 (67.3) < 0.001 0.01 (0.01 - 0.03)
 No 24 (13.6) Ref 19 (10.8) Ref   Ref