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Table 2 Group differences between healthy controls and former inpatients during the pandemic (age and sex needed not to be controlled for in these analyses, because these variables differed not significantly between control and MDD group)

From: Primary emotions as predictors for fear of COVID-19 in former inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder and healthy control participants

  Control MDD df t pBH 95% CI for mean difference d
n M (SD) n M (SD) Lower Upper
Depression severity 49 4.96(4.86) 44 23.68(14.80) 51.31 −8.01 < .001 −23.41 −14.03 −1.70
Fear of COVID-19 49 9.78(3.18) 44 13.27(6.65) 60.19 −3.18 .004 −5.70 −1.30 −0.67
Suppression (t2) 49 3.37(1.35) 44 4.25(1.44) 88.32 −3.03 .005 −1.45 −0.30 −0.63
Reappraisal (t2) 49 4.55(1.10) 44 4.01(1.57) 76.23 1.89 .102 −0.03 1.10 0.40
Fear of infecting others 49 2.37(1.27) 44 2.61(1.40) 87.28 −0.89 .508 − 0.80 0.31 −0.18
Financial hardships 49 1.78(0.99) 44 1.82(1.15) 85.29 −0.19 .894 − 0.49 0.40 −0.04
Fear of unemployment 49 1.74(1.06) 44 1.66(1.03) 90.32 0.35 .809 −0.36 0.51 0.07
Stress due to social distancing 49 2.76(1.20) 44 2.98(1.52) 81.75 −0.78 .549 − 0.79 0.35 −0.16
Stress due to restrictions with respect to leisure time activities 49 2.78(1.18) 44 2.77(1.61) 78.02 0.01 .993 −0.59 0.59 0.00
Psychological strain due to other circumstances 49 1.90(1.25) 44 3.59(1.34) 88.22 −6.30 < .001 −2.23 −1.16 −1.31
  1. Note. pBH refers to p-values (two-tailed) controlled for FDR. MDD group of former inpatients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019