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Fig. 2 | BMC Psychiatry

Fig. 2

From: Transdiagnostic symptom subtypes across autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: validated by measures of neurocognition and structural connectivity

Fig. 2

Symptom clusters with validations. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001. a Visual demonstration of clustering in 3-dimensional space. The original eight symptom dimensions were reduced to 3 dimensions by principal component analysis in this figure for visualization. Each component is a spatial dimension on the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. b Comparative radar plots of the symptoms in the three clusters. ***p < 0.001, Symptom Z scores on the y axis. Socialness: AQ socialness subscale, mindreading: AQ mindreading subscale, patterns: AQ patterns subscale, details: AQ attention to details, perseveration: AQ attention switching/perseveration subscale. IA: SNAP-IV inattention subscale, HI: SNAP-IV hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD: SNAP-IV oppositional defiant disorder subscale. c Subtypes mapped across DSM diagnostic categories. Each slice of the area chart shows the numbers of children in that DSM diagnostic category fell into a specific symptom cluster. d Cognition profiles in three clusters. All values are expressed in standardized units to facilitate interpretation of profiles across measures. Error bars represent 1 standard error of mean (SEM). PPT: Purdue Pegbord Test measuring fine motor function, VP: visual perception, MC: motor coordination, VMI: visual motor integration, VF-se: semantic verbal fluency, VF-ph: phoneny verbal fluency, RVP: rapid visual information processing, measure for sustain attention, SOC: stockings of cambridge, measure for planning, SWM: spatial working memory, measuring working memory, IED: Intra−/Extra-dimensional Set-shift Task, measuring regular

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