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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical baseline data and comparisons between those with no/some depression symptoms at baseline, and those who are symptomatic at baseline

From: Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse in Major Depressive Disorder (RADAR-MDD): recruitment, retention, and data availability in a longitudinal remote measurement study

  Total Sample No/Some Baseline Depression Symptomsa (n = 245) High Baseline Depression Symptoms (n = 378)b P-value
Total, N(%)   623 (100.0) 245 (39.3) 378 (60.7)  
London, N(%)   350 (56.2) 149 (60.8) 201 (53.2) 0.005
Barcelona, N(%)   155 (24.9) 44 (18.0) 111 (29.4)  
Amsterdam, N(%)   118 (18.9) 52 (21.2) 66 (17.5)  
Socio-demographics      
Age, M(SD)   46.4 (15.3) 48.2 (15.4) 45.1 (15.0) 0.013
Gender, N(%) Female 471 (75.6) 171 (69.8) 300 (79.4) 0.007
Marital Status, N(%) Single/separated/divorced/widowed 332 (53.3) 119 (47.8) 213 (56.2) 0.070
Married/cohabiting/LTR 291 (46.7) 125 (51.2) 166 (43.8)  
Aggregated Ethnicity, N(%)* White British/Dutch 369 (78.9) 163 (81.1) 206 (77.2) 0.262
White Other 35 (7.5) 18 (9.0) 17 (6.4)  
Black ethnic group 14 (3.0) 3 (1.5) 11 (4.1)  
Asian ethnic group 16 (3.4) 7 (3.5) 9 (3.4)  
Mixed ethnic background 16 (3.4) 5 (2.5) 11 (4.1)  
Other 18 (3.9) 5 (2.5) 13 (4.9)  
Employment Status Employed/furloughed 260 (41.7) 120 (49.2) 140 (36.9) < 0.0001
Unemployed/sick leave 134 (21.5) 35 (14.3) 99 (26.1)  
Student 68 (10.9) 21 (8.6) 47 (12.4)  
Retired 123 (19.7) 58 (23.8) 65 (17.2)  
Not reported 38 (6.1) 10 (4.1) 28 (7.4)  
Total years in education, M(SD) 16.4 (6.5) 17.0 (6.7) 16.1 (6.3) 0.085
Benefits Receipt, N(%) Yes 275 (44.1) 91 (37.1) 184 (48.7) 0.005
Accommodation type, N(%) Own outright/with mortgage 368 (59.1) 150 (61.5) 218 (57.5) 0.425
Renting 216 (34.7) 83 (34.0) 133 (35.1)  
Living rent-free 29 (4.7) 9 (3.7) 20 (5.3)  
Not reported 10 (1.6) 2 (0.8) 8 (2.1)  
Household income per annum, N(%) <£/€15,000 154 (24.8) 43 (17.6) 111 (29.4) 0.003
£/€15,000 – 55,000 354 (57.0) 143 (58.4) 211 (55.8)  
>£€55,000 98 (15.8) 52 (21.2) 46 (12.2)  
Prefer not to say 10 (1.6) 3 (1.2) 7 (1.9)  
Unknown 5 (0.8) 3 (1.2) 2 (0.5)  
Clinical Characteristics      
Current smoker, N(%) Yes 126 (20.2) 38 (15.5) 88 (23.3) 0.014
Medical comorbidity, N(%) Yes 343 (55.1) 111 (45.3) 232 (61.4) < 0.0001
Lifetime traumatic events, N(%) None 66 (10.6) 28 (11.4) 38 (10.1) 0.440
1–5 360 (57.8) 149 (60.8) 212 (56.1)  
6–12 185 (29.7) 65 (26.5) 121 (32.0)  
Not reported 12 (1.9) 3 (1.2) 7 (1.9)  
Current depression IDS-SR total, M(SD) 31.3 (14.5) 17.5 (8.3) 39.7 (10.5) < 0.0001
None (0–13), N(%) 61 (10.1) 61 (24.9) 0 (0.0) < 0.0001
Mild (14–25), N(%) 157 (25.9) 157 (64.1) 0 (0.0)  
Moderate (26–38), N(%) 206 (33.9) 4 (1.6) 202 (53.4)  
Severe (39–48), N(%) 104 (17.1) 5 (2.0) 99 (26.2)  
Very severe (49–84), N(%) 79 (13.0) 2 (0.8) 77 (20.4)  
Not reported 16 (2.6) 16 (6.5) 0 (0.0)  
Suicidal ideation, N(%) Yes 110 (17.7) 13 (5.3) 97 (25.7) < 0.0001
Taking antidepressants, N(%) Yes 408 (65.5) 142 (58.0) 266 (70.4) 0.004
Current anxiety GAD7 total, M(SD) 8.8 (5.7) 5.3 (4.2) 11.0 (5.0) < 0.0001
≥10, N(%) 270 (43.3) 46 (18.9) 224 (59.1) < 0.0001
Current functional disability WSAS total, M(SD) 19.3 (11.1) 12.0 (9.9) 23.9 (9.1) < 0.0001
No impairment (0–10), N(%) 155 (24.9) 126 (51.4) 29 (7.7) < 0.0001
Some impairment (11–20), N(%) 154 (24.7) 57 (23.3) 97 (25.7)  
Significant impairment (> 20), N(%) 314 (50.4) 62 (25.3) 252 (66.7)  
Alcohol use AUDIT total, M(SD) 3.2 (4.4) 3.9 (4.6) 2.8 (4.3) 0.005
Low risk (0–7), N(%) 528 (84.8) 198 (80.8) 330 (87.3) 0.242
Medium risk (8–15), N(%) 52 (8.4) 25 (10.2) 27 (7.1)  
High risk (16–19), N(%) 10 (1.6) 5 (2.0) 5 (1.3)  
Addiction likely (> 19), N(%) 8 (1.3) 5 (2.0) 3 (0.8)  
Not reported 25 (4.0) 12 (4.9) 13 (3.4)  
Illness Perceptions, M(SD) Consequences 6.1 (2.8) 4.5 (2.8) 7.1 (2.3) < 0.0001
Timeline 7.1 (3.1) 5.8 (3.6) 7.9 (2.4) < 0.0001
Personal Control 4.2 (2.7) 4.8 (2.7) 3.8 (2.6) < 0.0001
Treatment Control 6.0 (2.8) 6.7 (2.9) 5.5 (2.6) < 0.0001
Identity 5.9 (2.5) 4.5 (2.6) 6.7 (2.0) < 0.0001
Concern 6.3 (2.9) 4.9 (3.0) 7.2 (2.5) < 0.0001
Understanding 6.8 (2.8) 7.2 (2.7) 6.6 (2.9) 0.012
Emotional Response 7.1 (2.5) 6.1 (2.9) 7.9 (2.0) < 0.0001
Baseline aRMT PHQ8 PHQ8 total, M(SD) 10.9 (6.0) 6.4 (4.6) 13.7 (5.0) < 0.0001
≥10, N(%) 371 (59.6) 69 (28.3) 302 (79.7) < 0.0001
Baseline aRMT RSES (N = 545) RSES total, M(SD) 36.8 (2.3) 36.7 (2.4) 36.9 (2.3) 0.277
  1. a total number of participants not indicated as symptomatic. b total number of symptomatic: participants meeting criteria for MDD on the CIDI-SF and scoring > 25 on the IDS-SR. LTR Long Term Relationship. *Ethnicity data not collected at Spanish site (N = 155), percentages reported out of 468 individuals. Ethnicity data aggregated according to recommendations provided here: https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/style-guide/writing-about-ethnicity. IDS-SR Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self Report. GAD7 7-item questionnaire for Generalised Anxiety Disorder. WSAS Work and Social Adjustment Scale. AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. BIPQ Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. PHQ8 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. RSES Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. M(SD) Mean (Standard Deviation)