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Table 2 Risk of anxiety and depression at follow-up associated with number of chronic pain sites at baseline

From: The interplay between multisite pain and insomnia on the risk of anxiety and depression: the HUNT study

  Anxiety and/or depressiona Anxietyb Depressionc
Chronic pain variables No. of persons No. of cases Age-adjusted RRd Multi-adjusted, RRe (95% CI) No. of cases Age-adjusted RRd Multi-adjusted RRe (95% CI) No. of cases Age-adjusted RRd Multi-adjusted RRe (95% CI)
No chronic pain 9380 962 1.00 1.00 (reference) 730 1.00 1.00 (reference) 394 1.00 1.00 (reference)
 1–2 pain sites 4161 482 1.14 1.13 (1.02–1.25) 352 1.14 1.13 (1.00–1.28) 240 1.32 1.30 (1.11–1.52)
 3–4 pain sites 2865 401 1.39 1.34 (1.19–1.50) 302 1.47 1.38 (1.21–1.57) 166 1.30 1.29 (1.08–1.54)
 ≥5 pain sites 1895 310 1.64 1.54 (1.36–1.75) 231 1.76 1.60 (1.38–1.85) 126 1.45 1.45 (1.18–1.76)
  1. CI confidence interval, RR risk ratio
  2. aHADS-A ≥ 8 and/or HADS-D ≥ 8;bHADS-A ≥ 8 and any HADS-D;cHADS-D ≥ 8 and any HADS-A
  3. dAdjusted for age (continuous)
  4. eMulti-adjusted for age (continuous), sex (women, men), body mass index (continuous), smoking (never, former or occasional, current), alcohol consumption (no alcohol abuse, possible alcohol abuse), physical activity level (inactive, low activity, moderate activity, high activity)