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Table 2 Academic performance and CBCL/YSR syndrome scores before and after intervention overall and by region

From: The feasibility of using life skills training in primary schools to improve mental health and academic performance: a pilot study in Kenya

Subject &
Syndrome
Time Overall Peri-Urban Rural
N Mean ± SD P-Value N Mean ± SD P-Value N Mean ±SD P-Value
Academic Performance and CBCL syndrome scores Before and After intervention Lower Classes (2-4) 
 Aggregate Before 976 244.1±70.8 <0.0001 547 243.3±68.9 <0.0001 429 245.2±73.2 <0.0001
 marks After 256.8±71.5 257.1±72.5 256.5±70.5
 English Before 972 47.8±14.5 <0.0001 545 48.8±15.0 <0.0001 427 46.5±13.7 <0.0001
After 51.1±16.2 52.5±16.5 49.4±15.6
 Kiswahili Before 973 52.2±17.1 <0.0001 545 52.1±18.1 <0.0001 428 52.4±15.9 <0.0001
After 56.2±16.7 56.4±17.2 55.9±16.1
 Mathematics Before 973 47.5±19.1 0.0003 546 45.3±16.4 0.0090 427 50.3±21.7 0.0127
After 49.3±18.5 47.0±18.0 52.1±18.7
 Science Before 972 49.4±17.9 0.0126 546 49.3±16.6 0.0002 426 49.6±19.4 0.7402
After 50.4±17.6 51.2±17.2 49.4±17.9
 Social Before 967 47.0±15.8 <0.0001 541 47.7±15.9 <0.0001 426 46.1±15.5 <0.0001
 Studies After 50.5±15.8 50.4±16.3 50.7±15.3
 Attentiona Before 795 56.0±6.0 <0.0001 459 56.3±6.2 0.0232 336 55.6±5.8 <0.0001
  After   57.3±7.0    57.2±7.3    57.4±6.7  
 Internalizinga Before 794 60.3±10.8 <0.0001 458 60.3±10.7 0.0161 336 60.1±10.9 <0.0001
  After   62.2±7.2    61.7±7.4    63.0±6.7  
 Externalizinga Before 795 54.2±10.8 <0.0001 459 54.7±10.9 <0.0001 336 53.5±10.5 <0.0001
  After   57.9±7.2    57.4±7.1    58.4±7.3  
 Totala Before 795 56.7±11.6 <0.0001 459 57.2±11.8 <0.0001 336 56.1±11.4 <0.0001
  After   60.2±7.6    59.8±7.7    60.8±7.5  
Academic Performance and YSR syndrome scores Before and After intervention Upper Classes (5-7)  
 Aggregate Before 697 232.1±46.2 <0.0001 351 233.7±50.5 <0.0001 346 230.5±41.4 <0.0001
 marks After 243.4±48.7 240.6±52.9 246.2±43.8
 English Before 695 47.2±10.6 <0.0001 350 48.3±11.7 0.0052 345 46.0±9.1 <0.0001
After 49.9±10.2 49.5±11.4 50.2±8.8
 Kiswahili Before 694 49.7±9.8 0.0006 351 49.4±10.9 0.0019 343 49.9±8.5 0.0812
After 51.0±10.9 51.0±11.8 50.9±9.9
 Mathematics Before 695 40.6±13.6 0.0001 350 36.9±12.5 0.0001 345 44.4±13.7 0.0958
After 42.4±14.6 39.4±14.0 45.5±14.6
 Science Before 696 48.5±14.6 <0.0001 350 49.8±15.7 0.1340 346 47.1±13.3 <0.0001
After 50.7±14.6 50.8±15.6 50.6±13.4
 Social Before 695 46.5±11.6 <0.0001 349 49.3±12.6 0.4229 346 43.6±9.9 <0.0001
 Studies After 49.2±13.1 49.7±13.4 48.6±12.8
 Attentiona Before 577 53.6±6.3 0.0013 295 54.1±6.6 0.0904 282 53.1±5.9 0.0030
  After   52.7±4.9    53.4±5.1    51.9±4.6  
 Internalizinga Before 577 59.5±10.2 <0.0001 295 60.6±9.6 <0.0001 282 58.4±10.7 <0.0001
  After   53.1±5.2    54.2±5.5    52.0±4.5  
 Externalizinga Before 577 50.8±11.5 0.0358 295 51.9±11.1 0.6989 282 49.5±11.8 0.0103
  After   51.8±4.3    52.2±4.6    51.3±4.0  
 Totala Before 577 55.0±11.7 <0.0001 295 56.5±11.1 <0.0001 282 53.3±12.1 0.0145
  After   52.4±4.8    53.1±5.2    51.6±4.3  
  1. CBCL for Class 2 to 4 and YSR for Class 5 to 7; aMultivariate Pillai test