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Table 3 Independent socio-demographic predictors of current substance usea

From: Prevalence and perception of substance abuse and associated economic indicators and mental health disorders in a large cohort of Kenyan students: towards integrated public health approach and clinical management

Variable Category Tobacco Current Alcohol Current Cannabis Current Sedatives Current Khat/Amphetamines Current
A.O.R (95% C.I) A.O.R (95% C.I) A.O.R (95% C.I) A.O.R (95% C.I) A.O.R (95% C.I)
Sex Male 3.74 1.87 2.89 0.99 2.69
(2.99–4.71)*** (1.67–2.10)*** (2.32–3.62)*** (0.72–1.36) (2.05–3.57)***
Female Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age Mean(SD) 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.09 1.1
(1.04–1.13)*** (1.05–1.10)*** (1.01–1.10)** (1.02–1.17)** (1.05–1.15)***
Marital status Married Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Single 1.33 1.22 1.27 2.06 0.85
(0.87–2.15) (0.96–1.57) (0.81–2.09) (0.99–5.06) (0.54–1.42)
Others 5.77 2.91 2.62 2.33 2.91
(2.20–14.0)*** (1.39–5.93)** (0.72–7.62) (0.12–13.8) (0.81–8.33)
Religion Protestant Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Catholic 1.13 1.25 1.05 1.05 1.24
(0.93–1.37) (1.12–1.41)*** (0.85–1.29) (0.75–1.46) (0.96–1.59)
Muslim 1.02 0.50 1.03 1.29 1.38
(0.64–1.55) (0.36–0.69)*** (0.64–1.57) (0.62–2.39) (0.79–2.26)
Others 0.77 0.78 1.35 0.81 0.89
(0.43–1.27) (0.57–1.05) (0.84–2.08) (0.28–1.82) (0.42–1.68)
Birth order 1–2 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
3–5 0.84 0.90 0.82 1.06 1.03
(0.68–1.02) (0.80–1.01) (0.66–1.01) (0.76–1.47) (0.79–1.34)
6 +  0.67 0.67 0.60 0.82 1.31
(0.45–0.95)* (0.54–0.83)*** (0.39–0.89)* (0.44–1.43) (0.88–1.90)
Level of Education High School 1.14 0.65 1.01 0.98 1.3
(0.87–1.46) (0.55–0.78)*** (0.75–1.34) (0.58–1.57) (0.93–1.80)
College 0.95 1.10 1.02 1.54 1.26
(0.73–1.23) (0.95–1.27) (0.78–1.32) (1.05–2.22)* (0.91–1.71)
University Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Wealth Index Quintile 1 1.17 0.92 1.62 1.58 1.17
(0.88–1.57) (0.77–1.09) (1.17–2.26)** (0.96–2.62) (0.80–1.70)
Quintile 2 1.79 1.81 3.12 1.54 1.40
(1.36–2.36)*** (1.54–2.12)*** (2.32–4.26)*** (0.94–2.56) (0.97–2.04)
Quintile 3 1.03 0.90 1.51 1.51 0.87
(0.76–1.39) (0.75–1.07) (1.08–2.12)* (0.92–2.52) (0.58–1.30)
Quintile 4 0.69 0.61 0.65 0.75 1.00
(0.49–0.95)* (0.51–0.74)*** (0.43–0.97)* (0.41–1.35) (0.68–1.47)
Quintile 5 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. Ref. Reference category, A.O.R Adjusted Odds Ratio, C.I Confidence Interval
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. aResults from a multivariatelogisticregression model