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Table 5 Independent economic indicators that predict current substance usea

From: Prevalence and perception of substance abuse and associated economic indicators and mental health disorders in a large cohort of Kenyan students: towards integrated public health approach and clinical management

Variable Category Tobacco Current Alcohol Current Cannabis Current Sedatives Current Khat/Amphetamine Current
A.O.R (95% CI) A.O.R (95% CI) A.O.R (95% CI) A.O.R (95% CI) A.O.R (95% CI)
Electricity No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.54 1.53 1.66 1.62 1.25
  (1.17–2.05)** (1.30–1.80)*** (1.21–2.29)** (1.01–2.61)* (0.89–1.75)
Radio No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.07 1.11 0.74 1.22 1.01
  (0.81–1.42) (0.94–1.31) (0.56–0.99)* (0.77–2.00) (0.72–1.43)
Television No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.02 1.13 1.02 0.87 0.75
  (0.78–1.35) (0.97–1.33) (0.76–1.37) (0.56–1.37) (0.54–1.06)
Refrigerator No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.13 1.19 1.38 0.82 1.15
  (0.87–1.45) (1.02–1.39)* (1.06–1.78)* (0.52–1.27) (0.81–1.64)
Cell phone No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.02 1.33 1.36 1.32 0.81
  (0.80–1.29) (1.15–1.55)*** (1.04–1.80)* (0.88–2.04) (0.61–1.09)
Bicycle No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.40 1.14 1.17 1.22 1.26
  (1.15–1.72)*** (1.01–1.28)* (0.94–1.45) (0.86–1.71) (0.96–1.64)
Motorcycle No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.06 0.80 0.72 1.21 1.33
  (0.84–1.32) (0.69–0.92)** (0.55–0.93)* (0.82–1.76) (0.99–1.78)
Motor vehicle No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.98 1.03 0.97 0.68 0.81
  (0.76–1.25) (0.89–1.20) (0.75–1.25) (0.43–1.06) (0.57–1.15)
Source of water Piped water Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Public water 1.13 0.75 1.04 0.85 0.98
  (0.85–1.49) (0.63–0.90)** (0.78–1.39) (0.50–1.40) (0.68–1.40)
Well water 0.88 0.83 0.79 1.10 0.77
  (0.69–1.12) (0.72–0.95)** (0.61–1.01) (0.74–1.63) (0.56–1.05)
Surface water 0.85 0.67 0.67 0.85 0.57
  (0.64–1.12) (0.57–0.79)*** (0.49–0.92)* (0.52–1.37) (0.39–0.83)**
Other source 0.70 0.58 0.38 0.34 0.67
  (0.29–1.43) (0.35–0.92)* (0.12–0.93) (0.02–1.59) (0.20–1.65)
Earth floor No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.81 0.81 0.52 0.60 0.16
  (0.31–1.95) (0.46–1.38) (0.18–1.43) (0.12–2.90) (0.06–0.52)**
Cement floor No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.77 0.90 0.69 0.54 0.21
  (0.30–1.82) (0.52–1.52) (0.24–1.84) (0.11–2.52) (0.08–0.66)**
Tile floor No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.80 0.93 0.68 0.44 0.17
  (0.30–1.93) (0.53–1.58) (0.23–1.82) (0.09–2.11) (0.06–0.57)**
Wood floor No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 1.21 0.85 0.66 1.01 0.29
  (0.39–3.35) (0.42–1.66) (0.18–2.17) (0.16–5.81) (0.08–1.11)
Other floor material No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Yes 0.60 0.82 0.68 0.00 0.00
  (0.03–3.57) (0.22–2.42) (0.03–4.41) (0.00–0.00) (0.00–0.00)
Toilet No toilet Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Pit latrine 0.39 0.70 0.37 0.26 0.54
  (0.22–0.75)** (0.45–1.15) (0.19–0.79)** (0.12–0.70)** (0.26–1.32)
Flush toilet 0.47 0.63 0.37 0.42 0.66
  (0.26–0.93)* (0.39–1.05) (0.18–0.80)** (0.17–1.18) (0.30–1.68)
Other toilet facility 0.70 0.68 0.57 0.27 0.33
  (0.33–1.54) (0.37–1.25) (0.23–1.44) (0.06–1.06) (0.08–1.13)
Cooking method Firewood Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Charcoal 1.20 0.91 1.42 1.28 0.99
  (0.89–1.60) (0.76–1.09) (1.01–1.97)* (0.75–2.11) (0.67–1.43)
Kerosene stove 1.68 1.13 1.65 1.93 1.16
  (1.05–2.57)* (0.84–1.52) (0.95–2.70) (0.87–3.82) (0.60–2.07)
Gas stove 1.49 1.54 2.28 1.79 0.98
  (1.13–1.95)** (1.32–1.80)*** (1.71–3.05)*** (1.12–2.85)* (0.68–1.41)
Electric stove 1.21 1.52 3.16 4.32 2.15
  (0.68–2.06) (1.10–2.09)* (1.94–5.04)*** (2.06–8.62)*** (1.16–3.84)*
Other 1.13 1.64 2.91 0.55 1.35
  (0.46–2.38) (1.01–2.58)* (1.39–5.54)** (0.03–2.67) (0.46–3.18)
  1. Ref. Reference category, A.O.R Adjusted Odds Ratio, C.I Confidence Interval
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. aResults from a multivariatelogisticregression model