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Table 3 Physiological ER (HRV) effects for time and group by time for both ITT and per protocol analyses

From: Emotion dysregulation and heart rate variability improve in US veterans undergoing treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder: Secondary exploratory analyses from a randomised controlled trial

HRV index Time Group x Time
ITT (base n = 63; EOT n = 54) Per Protocol (base n = 45; EOT n = 49) ITT (base n = 63; EOT n = 54) Per Protocol (base n = 45; EOT n = 49)
β t d β t d β t CPT d SKY d β t CPT d SKY d
HR max-min .33 .84 −.15 .57 1.32 −.28 1.21 1.54 .07 −.24 1.81 2.11* .01 −.42
LF/HF −.08 −1.48 .17 −.05 −.84 .17 −.18 −1.59 −.05 .49 −.25 −2.05* −.04 .49
RMSSD .89 .72 −.11 1.34 .97 −.18 2.77 1.13 .13 −.17 3.95 1.43 .14 −.28
SDNN .52 .50 −.11 1.05 .90 −.17 2.17 1.05 .06 −.17 2.82 1.21 .06 −.26
HF-HRV (n.u.) .74 1.76^ −.17 .64 1.34 −.22 1.37 1.62 .08 −.45 1.96 2.06* .07 −.55
HF-HRV (ms2) 256.84 1.13 −.15 289.96 1.03 −.16 521.11 1.15 −.09 −.20 587.60 1.05 −.09 −.23
LF peak (Hz) −.001 −1.03 .20 −.001 −1.06 .18 −.001 −.96 .02 .31 −.001 −.95 .03 .29
LF-HRV (ms2) 78.76 .70 −12 112.34 .82 −.13 255.80 1.14 .13 −.17 261.71 .95 .13 −.20
  1. ER Emotion regulation, ITT Intent-to-treat, base Baseline, EOT End-of-treatment, HRV Heart rate variability; HR max-min = average difference between the maximum and minimum HR (bpm); LF/HF = low-to-high frequency ratio; RMSSD = square root of the mean squared differences between successive R-R intervals (ms); SDNN = standard deviation of the IBI of normal sinus beats (ms); HF-HRV (n.u.) = normalised high frequency power HRV (FFT); HF-HRV (ms2) = absolute high frequency power (FFT); LF peak (Hz) = peak frequency of the low frequency band (FFT); LF-HRV (ms2) = absolute low frequency power (FFT); CPT = cognitive processing therapy; SKY = Sudarshan kriya yoga. *** p < .001, ** p < .01, * p < .05, ^ p = .05–.10