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Table 2 Factors associated with high-symptoms class membership (Adjusted Odds Ratios)

From: Self-reported mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with alcohol and cannabis use: a latent class analysis

  Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 4 Wave5 Wave 6
Women 1.58*** (1.16–2.15) 1.21 (0.88–1.67) 1.47** (1.07–2.02) 1.18 (0.86–1.61) 1.63*** (1.14–2.32) 1.17 (0.86–1.58)
Worry about contracting COVID-19 3.51*** (2.20–5.60) 2.42*** (1.63–3.60) 1.72*** (1.17–2.51) 2.50*** (1.66–3.75) 3.09*** (1.87–5.09) 2.00*** (1.32–3.03)
Living with others 1.07 (0.65–1.78) 0.95 (0.57–1.58) 1.55 (0.96–2.52) 0.83 (0.51–1.35) 0.74 (0.44–1.24) 1.15 (0.71–1.87)
Presence of children 1.17 (0.79–1.73) 1.16 (0.79–1.72) 0.74 (0.48–1.14) 1.27 (0.85–1.91) 1.96*** (1.26–3.05) 0.87 (0.58–1.30)
Household income less than $40,000 (ref) - - - - - -
Household income of $40,000-$79,999 0.73 (0.44–1.22) 0.72 (0.44–1.19) 0.69 (0.42–1.13) 0.97 (0.59–1.62) 0.55** (0.31–0.98) 0.64 (0.39–1.07)
Household income of $80,000-$119,999 0.86 (0.50–1.46) 0.40*** (0.23–0.71) 0.51** (0.30–0.87) 0.73 (0.42–1.26) 0.41*** (0.23–0.75) 0.57** (0.33–0.98)
Household income $120,000+ 0.61 (0.35–1.08) 0.23*** (0.13–0.41) 0.29*** (0.16–0.53) 0.87 (0.50–1.51) 0.54** (0.29–0.99) 0.37*** (0.21–0.67)
Household income missing 0.62 (0.35–1.11) 0.39*** (0.21–0.71) 0.47** (0.26–0.84) 0.73 (0.41–1.28) 0.41*** (0.22–0.78) 0.57 (0.32–1.03)
College diploma (ref) - - - - - -
High school 1.11 (0.63–1.97) 0.73 (0.39–1.36) 0.86 (0.49–1.52) 1.03 (0.58–1.84) 1.81 (0.96–3.42) 0.83 (0.46–1.49)
Post-secondary 1.14 (0.69–1.88) 1.42 (0.85–2.36) 1.09 (0.64–1.86) 0.93 (0.55–1.58) 1.95** (1.07–3.58) 1.21 (0.74–1.98)
University 0.79 (0.53–1.19) 0.98 (0.64–1.49) 0.92 (0.59–1.42) 1.08 (0.72–1.62) 1.12 (0.70–1.80) 1.16 (0.79–1.72)
White (ref.)
Non-White 1.08 (0.77–1.52) 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 1.17 (0.82–1.68) 1.18 (0.83–1.68) 1.04 (0.70–1.53) 0.92 (0.65–1.30)
Rural (ref.)
Urban 1.42 (0.88–2.30) 1.06 (0.65–1.71) 1.21 (0.73–1.99) 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 1.68 (0.99–2.84) 0.72 (0.46–1.11)
Suburban 1.23 (0.75–2.02) 1.02 (0.62–1.68) 0.93 (0.55–1.56) 0.76 (0.48–1.22) 0.94 (0.54–1.64) 0.83 (0.53–1.30)
Single (ref.)
Separated/ divorced/ widowed 1.30 (0.73–2.29) 1.54 (0.88–2.71) 1.91** (1.07–3.41) 0.90 (0.51–1.57) 0.64 (0.32–1.27) 1.15 (0.65–2.04)
Married 0.90 (0.57–1.41) 1.06 (0.68–1.66) 0.73 (0.46–1.16) 0.54** (0.34–0.87) 0.47*** (0.29–0.76) 0.78 (0.50–1.24)
Age 18–39 (ref.)
Age 40–59 0.80 (0.55–1.14) 0.92 (0.63–1.33) 1.03 (0.70–1.51) 0.75 (0.51–1.10) 0.96 (0.65–1.42) 0.93 (0.65–1.33)
Age 60+ 0.39*** (0.25–0.63) 0.26*** (0.15–0.44) 0.36*** (0.22–0.60) 0.48*** (0.29–0.77) 0.27*** (0.15–0.51) 0.35*** (0.22–0.56)
Constant 0.13*** (0.05–0.31) 0.39** (0.18–0.84) 0.28*** (0.12–0.61) 0.36** (0.16–0.80) 0.20*** (0.08–0.49) 0.51 (0.23–1.12)
Observations 1,002 999 1,000 1,000 1,001 997
Pseudo R-squared 0.0752 0.0972 0.0855 0.0661 0.148 0.0561
  1. Legend: 95% confidence level in parentheses. Significance level *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05