Skip to main content

Table 4 Association between characteristics of online courses and mental health problems of children

From: The relationship between online courses and mental health among Chinese children

Online courses Mental health problems Borderline mental health problems
Crude model Adjusted modela Crude model Adjusted modela
OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value
Problems of online courses
 No ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Difficulty in understanding the content of online courses 2.82 (1.32, 6.05) 0.008 1.64 (0.64, 4.18) 0.299 3.17 (1.94, 5.18)  < 0.001 1.93 (1.07, 3.49) 0.028
 Device or internet connection problems 1.20 (0.15, 9.66) 0.866 1.14 (0.09, 14.24) 0.919 0.46 (0.06, 3.54) 0.454 0.33 (0.04, 2.99) 0.323
Main form of online courses
 Live courses ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Video-recorded courses 2.30 (1.09, 4.85) 0.029 1.60 (0.59, 4.29) 0.355 1.60 (0.98, 2.61) 0.062 1.43 (0.78, 2.64) 0.249
 E-learning material without video 0.45 (0.06, 3.52) 0.448 0.15 (0.01, 1.76) 0.130 1.01 (0.42, 2.38) 0.991 0.73 (0.25, 2.13) 0.557
Online courses time per day, hour
  <  = 4(lower than or equal to median) ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  > 4(more than median) 0.96 (0.44, 2.10) 0.923 0.81 (0.28, 2.36) 0.697 1.46 (0.91, 2.34) 0.120 1.66 (0.91, 3.02) 0.098
  1. aadjusting for region, parental educational level, family monthly income, children’s gender, children’s age, children’s screen time, children’s outdoor physical activity time, children’s academic performance, COVID-19 policy of restrictions for going out of housing community, frequency of children’s bad mood, and relationship between children and their parents