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Table 5 Multinomial logistic regressions examining the mental health and job strain associations with the identified classes of health (risk) behaviours for men and women. Percentages are weighted with conditional probability weights. Adjusted multinomial odds ratios (AMOR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are shown). Adjusted for sociodemographic and occupational variables found to be significantly associated with the identified classes for men and women (age, country, education, ethnicity, marital status, number of children under 18, years in police force, income, days of sickness absence in past year)

From: A latent class analysis of health risk behaviours in the UK Police Service and their associations with mental health and job strain

  Class 1 N = 5,307
Healthiest (Ref.)
Class 2 N = 3,560
Healthy abstainers
Class 3 N = 7,092
Health risks but physically active
Class 4 N = 8,839
Low risk drinkers but other risks
Class 5 N = 990
High health risk behaviours
Men (N = 25,788) N (%) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI)
Depression
 Non-case 4,981 (95.07) 3,163 (89.35) 1.00 6,381 (91.86) 1.00 7,928 (91.11) 1.00 830 (85.40) 1.00
 Probable case 257 (4.93) 348 (10.65) 2.07 (1.73 to 2.47)*** 573 (8.14) 1.66 (1.42 to 1.95)*** 775 (8.89) 1.80 (1.55 to 2.10)*** 137 (14.60) 3.09 (2.45 to 3.89)***
Anxiety
 Non-case 5,030 (96.16) 3,244 (92.00) 1.00 6,476 (93.14) 1.00 8,200 (94.34) 1.00 845 (87.09) 1.00
 Probable case 208 (3.84) 267 (8.00) 2.10 (1.72 to 2.56)*** 478 (6.86) 1.82 (1.53 to 2.16)*** 503 (5.66) 1.49 (1.25 to 1.77)*** 122 (12.91) 3.51 (2.75 to 4.48)***
PTSD          
 Non-case 4,773 (96.68) 3,228 (95.46) 1.00 6,273 (95.56) 1.00 8,076 (96.43) 1.00 818 (91.80) 1.00
 Probable case 164 (3.32) 145 (4.54) 1.34 (1.04 to 1.71)* 291 (4.44) 1.34 (1.09 to 1.64)** 306 (3.57) 1.09 (0.89 to 1.33) 73 (8.20) 2.53 (1.89 to 3.40)***
Job Strain
 Low 1,598 (21.78) 990 (27.95) 1.00 2,137 (30.99) 1.00 2,484 (28.18) 1.00 306 (32.27) 1.00
 High 1,142 (21.78) 878 (25.79) 1.21 (1.07 to 1.38)** 1,491 (21.52) 1.00 (0.89 to 1.11) 2,080 (24.40) 1.14 (1.03 to 1.26)** 208 (21.65) 1.01 (0.82 to 1.23)
 Active 1,525 (29.45) 1,018 (28.78) 1.10 (0.98 to 1.24) 2,120 (30.29) 1.04 (0.94 to 1.14) 2,484 (28.47) 1.07 (0.97 to 1.17) 303 (30.81) 1.05 (0.88 to 1.26)
 Passive 973 (18.53) 625 (17.47) 0.95 (0.83 to 1.09) 1,206 (17.20) 0.92 (0.82 to 1.03) 1,651 (18.95) 1.03 (0.93 to 1.15) 150 (15.26) 0.83 (0.67 to 1.03)
  Class 1 N = 4,543
Healthiest (Ref.)
Class 2 N = 1,894
Healthy abstainers
Class 3 N = 2,072
Moderate health risk behaviours
Class 4 N = 6,121
Low risk drinkers but other risks
Class 5 N = 568
High health risk behaviours
Women (N = 15,198) N (%) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI) N (%) AMOR (95% CI)
Depression
 Non-case 4,034 (90.22) 1,612 (86.25) 1.00 1,612 (87.47) 1.00 5,280 (86.86) 1.00 429 (72.98) 1.00
 Probable case 439 (9.78) 258 (13.75) 1.36 (1.14 to 1.62)** 255 (12.53) 1.31 (1.10 to 1.55)** 775 (13.14) 1.39 (1.22 to 1.58)*** 141 (27.02) 3.24 (2.57 to 4.08)***
Anxiety
 Non-case 3,982 (89.02) 1,637 (87.72) 1.00 1,784 (86.98) 1.00 5,319 (87.91) 1.00 448 (79.30) 1.00
 Probable case 491 (10.98) 233 (12.28) 1.10 (0.92 to 1.31) 256 (13.02) 1.20 (1.01 to 1.42)* 736 (12.09) 1.14 (1.01 to 1.30)* 113 (20.70) 2.16 (1.70 to 2.75)***
PTSD
 Non-case 4,140 (96.58) 1,654 (96.39) 1.00 1,677 (95.54) 1.00 5,681 (96.39) 1.00 518 (93.54) 1.00
 Probable case 147 (3.42) 63 (3.61) 1.01 (0.74 to 1.37) 80 (4.46) 1.35 (1.02 to 1.80)* 213 (3.61) 1.09 (0.87 to 1.36) 33 (6.46) 1.71 (1.12 to 2.60)*
Job Strain          
 Low 1,086 (24.27) 418 (22.70) 1.00 488 (23.78) 1.00 1,370 (22.26) 1.00 138 (24.22) 1.00
 High 1,091 (24.40) 508 (26.96) 1.08 (0.92 to 1.27) 496 (24.50) 0.99 (0.85 to 1.16) 1,684 (28.14) 1.19 (1.06 to 1.34)** 144 (25.62) 1.01 (0.78 to 1.32)
 Active 1,198 (26.70) 466 (24.93) 1.00 (0.85 to 1.17) 552 (26.70) 1.02 (0.87 to 1.19) 1,452 (23.88) 1.02 (0.91 to 1.14) 124 (22.19) 0.78 (0.59 to 1.02)
 Passive 1,098 (24.63) 478 (25.41) 1.04 (0.88 to 1.21) 504 (25.02) 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) 1,549 (25.72) 1.10 (0.98 to 1.23) 155 (27.97) 1.11 (0.86 to 1.44)
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05