Skip to main content

Table 3 Mean healthcare costs during the pre- and post-index periods among the CTO cohorts

From: Health resource utilization and cost before versus after initiation of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics among adults with schizophrenia in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective, observational single-arm study

  CTO status
pre = no / post = no
(n = 689; 57%)
pre = yes / post = yes
(n = 275; 23%)
pre = yes / post = no
(n = 133; 11%)
pre = no / post = yes
(n = 114; 9%)
pre-index post-index pre-index post-index pre-index post-index pre-index post-index
All-Cause, $CDN
Total, mean
(standard deviation)
$61,281 (72,902) $34,387 (65,056) $91,342
(74,924)
$51,324 (80,380) $100,699 (82,557) $15,987 (22,746) $79,285 (72,358) $78,268 (78,204)
difference [95%CI] -$26,894 [-33472, -20316] -$40,018 [-51363, -28673] -$84,712 [-98938, -70486] -$1017 [-19082, 17048]
Hospitalizations, mean
(standard deviation)
$44,871 (62,059) $23,016 (52,911) $66,326 (60,263) $36,392 (67,225) $76,597 (72,378) $7913 (17,777) $59,026 (59,563) $55,499 (63,312)
difference [95%CI] -$21,855 [-27526, -16185] -$29,934 [-39438, -20430] -$68,684 [-81158, -56210] -$3527 [-18210, 11156]
Physician visits, mean
(standard deviation)
$14,013 (12,111) $9759 (12,641) $22,347
(15,303)
$13,266 (13,551) $21,861 (12,627) $7300
(5654)
$17,297 (13,275) $20,039 (14,477)
difference [95%CI] -$4254 [-5286, -3222] -$9081 [-11093, -7069] -$14,561 [-16684, -12439] $2742 [-682, 6166]
ED visits, mean
(standard deviation)
$2396 (3768) $1612 (4258) $2669 (2892) $1666 (2400) $2241 (1988) $774 (1412) $2962 (3593) $2730 (3335)
difference [95%CI] -$785 [-1038, -531] -$1002 [-1310, -695] -$1467 [-1811, -1123] -$232 [-933, 469]
Mental health-related, $CDN
Total, mean
(standard deviation)
$55,360 (68,443) $27,965 (59,719) $86,532 (73,380) $44,222 (74,477) $92,753 (73,726) $13,974 (22,046) $75,092 (71,688) $71,361 (70,648)
difference [95%CI] -$27,395 [-33667, -21122] -$42,311 [-53047, -31575] -$78,779 [-91476, -66082] -$3731 [-20470, 13008]
Hospitalizations, mean
(standard deviation)
$41,827 (59,543) $19,300 (49,347) $64,106 (59,601) $31,838 (61,986) $70,814 (63,850) $7188 (17,376) $57,283 (59,364) $51,652 (57,815)
difference [95%CI] -$22,527 [-27964, -17090] -$32,268 [-41216, -23319] -$63,626 [-74636, -52616] -$5631 [-19328, 8067]
Physician visits, mean
(standard deviation)
$12,128 (10,663) $78,456 (11,155) $20,546 (14,677) $11,340 (12,711) $20,243 (12,104) $6316 (5398) $15,773 (12,989) $17,972 (13,319)
difference [95%CI] -$4282 [-5248, -3316] -$9206 [-11138, -7274] -$13,927 [-15957, -11897] $2200 [-996, 5395]
ED visits, mean
(standard deviation)
$1405 (2080) $819 (2314) $1881 (1978) $1044 (1769) $1696 (1417) $470 (967) $2036 (2588) $1736 (2066)
difference [95%CI] -$586 [-742, -430] -$837 [-1055, -619] -$1226 [-1472, -980] -$300 [-799, 198]
  1. Bolded mean difference indicates statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between the 2-year post- and 2-year pre-index periods using paired t-tests. Abbreviations: CDN Canadian, CI Confidence interval, CTO Community treatment order, ED Emergency department