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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of secluded and nonsecluded suicidal patients

From: Seclusion as a coercive measure in suicidality – daily routine or exception?

   Secluded patients (n = 53)
n (%)/M (SD)
Nonsecluded patients (n = 106)
n (%)/M (SD)
p value
Age   35.5 (13.9) 38.3 (13.6) .164
Sex Female 26 (49.1%) 52 (49.1%) .999
Main diagnosis at dischargea F1 6 (11.3%) 9 (8.6%) .298
F2 7 (13.2%) 6 (5.7%)  
F3 17 (32.1%) 51 (48.6%)  
F4 12 (22.6%) 22 (21.0%)  
F6 9 (17.0%) 15 (14.3%)  
Other 2 (3.8%) 2 (1.9%)  
Number of secondary diagnoses   1.36 (1.33) 1.12 (1.16) .318
Secondary diagnosis of a personality disorder (F6)   2 (3.8%) 16 (15.1%) .034
Compulsory admission   41 (77.4%) 47 (44.3%)  < .001
Communication (language skills) Not possible 11 (20.8%) 6 (5.7%) .003
Difficult 6 (11.3%) 5 (4.7%)  
Possible 36 (67.9%) 95(89.6%)  
Intoxication at admission   16 (30.2%) 24 (22.6%) .301
Admission by police   17 (32.1%) 13 (12.3%) .003
Admission during office hours   13 (24.5%) 24 (22.6%) .791
Temporary retentionb   11 (20.8%) 2 (1.9%)  < .001
Residence statusc Swiss 29 (54.7%) 74 (71.8%) .001
  Foreigner 3 (5.7%) 17 (16.5%)  
  Asylum status 11 (20.8%) 6 (5.8%)  
  Other 10 (18.9%) 6 (5.8%)  
Residence prior to admission At home 20 (41,7%) 68 (66.7%) .003
Residential home/hospital 16 (33.3%) 28 (27.5%)  
Homeless 3 (6.2%) 2 (2.0%)  
Other 8 (16.7%) 3 (2.9%)  
  1. Notes: Group comparisons were performed using Pearson’s chi2 tests, Fisher's exact tests, Mann–Whitney U tests or t tests
  2. aDiagnoses according to the German version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Information on the main diagnosis was missing for one patient who was not secluded (0.9%)
  3. bAccording to article 427 of the ZGB (Swiss civil code) of the SGB (social code), persons admitted voluntarily may be retained in the hospital against their will for a maximum of 72 h if there is an acute danger to themselves or others
  4. cInformation on residence status was missing for three patients who were not secluded (2.8%)