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Fig. 3 | BMC Psychiatry

Fig. 3

From: Individual changes in stress, depression, anxiety, pathological worry, posttraumatic stress, and health anxiety from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic in adults from Southeastern Germany

Fig. 3

Perceived changes in mental health problems and clinical relevance during first COVID-19 lockdown. N=396 adult participants. Lengths of the single bars (comprising shaded and non-shaded parts) represent the relative frequencies of individually perceived decreases, no changes, and increases in mental health problems during first lockdown in comparison to before the COVID-19 pandemic. Lengths of the shaded parts within the single bars represent the respective percentage of participants whose level of symptom severity during lockdown reached clinical relevance thresholds. The non-shaded parts of the single bars represent the respective percentage of participants whose symptom level was below clinical relevance thresholds. To determine frequencies of perceived decreases, no changes, and increases in mental health problems, modified versions of the questionnaires DASS21 depression, PTSS10, DASS21 anxiety, PSWQ-PW, and MK-HAI were used to assess how people feel their mental health has changed during lockdown in comparison to before the pandemic on item level (change values; –2 much less than before corona; +2 much more than before corona). Change indices (–2 strong decrease; +2 strong increase) were calculated for each participant and each outcome variable by averaging the change values for the respective questionnaire items, and were grouped into three change categories (–2.00 to –0.50 decrease; –0.49 to +0.49 no change; +0.50 to +2.00 increase). The severity of symptoms during lockdown was measured using the original questionnaires (DASS21 depression, PTSS-10, DASS21 anxiety, PSWQ-PW, and MK-HAI). To determine the clinical relevance of the symptom severity, the participants’ questionnaire scores were classified as above or below cut-offs stated by the questionnaire authors (≥10 for DASS21 depression, ≥24 for PTSS-10, and ≥6 for DASS21 anxiety), or as above or below clinical significance thresholds calculated in reference to clinical samples from the literature (≥54.54 for PSWQ-PW, and ≥23.93 for MK-HAI)

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