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Fig. 3 | BMC Psychiatry

Fig. 3

From: Humanistic and economic burden associated with depression in the United States: a cross-sectional survey analysis

Fig. 3

WPAI scores among respondents with and without depression diagnosis and across severity groups – Multivariable results

Results are based on generalized linear regression models controlling for demographics, health characteristics, and comorbidities as covariates. Respondents with depression diagnosis: those who self-reported physician diagnosis of depression and reported experiencing depression in the past 12 months. Respondents without depression diagnosis: those who had no self-reported physician diagnosis of depression, reported not experiencing depression in the past 12 months, and had PHQ-9 scores ≤ 4. In panel (b), the five groups are based on depression severity (PHQ-9 scores). *P-value < 0.001: comparison vs without depression diagnosis group in sub-figure a; comparison vs no/minimal symptoms severity group in sub-figure b. Confidence bars represent standard error of the mean score. PHQ-9, the Patient Health Questionnaire 9; WPAI, work productivity and activity impairment

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