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Table 1 Demographics, health characteristics of respondents with depression versus without depression diagnosis and across severity groups

From: Humanistic and economic burden associated with depression in the United States: a cross-sectional survey analysis

Variable Respondents without depression diagnosisb*
n = 30,478
Respondents with depression diagnosisa
Total (all symptom levels)*
n = 8853
No/minimal symptoms#
n = 1876
Mild symptoms#
n = 2801
Moderate symptoms#
n = 1938
Moderately severe symptoms#
n = 1376
Severe symptoms#
n = 862
Demographic characteristics
Age (years), mean ± SD 43.9 ± 13.6 39.9 ± 14.1 42.1 ± 13.8 41.0 ± 14.0 39.0 ± 14.2 37.8 ± 13.8 37.1 ± 14.1
Female, n (%) 15600 (51.2) 6282 (71.0) 1265 (67.4) 1968 (70.3) 1416 (73.1) 993 (72.2) 640 (74.2)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  Non-Hispanic white 17860 (58.6) 5817 (65.7) 1244 (66.3) 1918 (68.5) 1259 (65.0) 865 (62.9) 531 (61.6)
  Non-Hispanic black 3866 (12.7) 818 (9.2) 197 (10.5) 241 (8.6) 169 (8.7) 134 (9.7) 77 (8.9)
  Hispanic 3373 (11.1) 1184 (13.4) 228 (12.2) 348 (12.4) 273 (14.1) 186 (13.5) 149 (17.3)
  Other ethnicity 5379 (17.6) 1034 (11.7) 207 (11.0) 294 (10.5) 237 (12.2) 191 (13.9) 105 (12.2)
Marital status, n (%)
  Single 12301 (40.4) 4825 (54.5) 936 (49.9) 1501 (53.6) 1066 (55.0) 789 (57.3) 533 (61.8)
  Married/living with partner 18096 (59.4) 4015 (45.4) 937 (49.9) 1299 (46.4) 867 (44.7) 587 (42.7) 325 (37.7)
  Decline to answer 81 (0.3) 13 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 1 (0.0) 5 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.5)
Education level, n (%)
  Less than college educated 13140 (43.1) 5437 (61.4) 1003 (53.5) 1649 (58.9) 1240 (64.0) 930 (67.6) 615 (71.3)
  College educated 17289 (56.7) 3401 (38.4) 866 (46.2) 1149 (41.0) 694 (35.8) 446 (32.4) 246 (28.5)
  Decline to answer 49 (0.2) 15 (0.2) 7 (0.4) 3 (0.1) 4 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
Annual household income, n (%)
  < $25 K 3420 (11.2) 2185 (24.7) 349 (18.6) 645 (23.0) 491 (25.3) 427 (31.0) 273 (31.7)
  $25 K to < $50 K 5835 (19.1) 2499 (28.2) 464 (24.7) 798 (28.5) 563 (29.1) 418 (30.4) 256 (29.7)
  $50 K to < $75 K 5775 (18.9) 1637 (18.5) 383 (20.4) 560 (20.0) 355 (18.3) 207 (15.0) 132 (15.3)
  $75 K or more 13567 (44.5) 2120 (23.9) 598 (31.9) 691 (24.7) 419 (21.6) 264 (19.2) 148 (17.2)
  Decline to answer 1881 (6.2) 412 (4.7) 82 (4.4) 107 (3.8) 110 (5.7) 60 (4.4) 53 (6.1)
Employed, n (%) 22073 (72.4) 5014 (56.6) 1208 (64.4) 1638 (58.5) 1058 (54.6) 706 (51.3) 404 (46.9)
Has health insurance, n (%) 27719 (90.9) 8030 (90.7) 1764 (94.0) 2557 (91.3) 1747 (90.1) 1219 (88.6) 743 (86.2)
Body mass index, n (%)
  Underweight (< 18.5) 732 (2.4) 256 (2.9) 48 (2.6) 68 (2.4) 59 (3.0) 48 (3.5) 33 (3.8)
  Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 11476 (37.7) 2540 (28.7) 580 (30.9) 808 (28.8) 543 (28.0) 391 (28.4) 218 (25.3)
  Overweight (25.0–29.9) 9716 (31.9) 2258 (25.5) 550 (29.3) 745 (26.6) 449 (23.2) 328 (23.8) 186 (21.6)
  Obese (30.0–39.9) 6308 (20.7) 2542 (28.7) 494 (26.3) 811 (29.0) 586 (30.2) 381 (27.7) 270 (31.3)
  Morbidly obese (≥ 40) 1187 (3.9) 973 (11.0) 147 (7.8) 276 (9.9) 232 (12.0) 196 (14.2) 122 (14.2)
  Decline to answer 1059 (3.5) 284 (3.2) 57 (3.0) 93 (3.3) 69 (3.6) 32 (2.3) 33 (3.8)
Smoking behavior, n (%)
  Never smoked 21814 (71.6) 4844 (54.7) 1095 (58.4) 1518 (54.2) 1072 (55.3) 682 (49.6) 477 (55.3)
  Former smoker 5546 (18.2) 2275 (25.7) 466 (24.8) 744 (26.6) 495 (25.5) 365 (26.5) 205 (23.8)
  Current smoker 3118 (10.2) 1734 (19.6) 315 (16.8) 539 (19.2) 371 (19.1) 329 (23.9) 180 (20.9)
Alcohol use, n (%) 20441 (67.1) 5839 (66.0) 1268 (67.6) 1918 (68.5) 1258 (64.9) 879 (63.9) 516 (59.9)
Regularly exercised 22372 (73.4) 5192 (58.6) 1215 (64.8) 1707 (60.9) 1091 (56.3) 748 (54.4) 431 (50.0)
CCI, mean ± SD 0.14 ± 0.61 0.44 ± 1.08 0.36 ± 0.98 0.42 ± 1.08 0.48 ± 1.11 0.49 ± 1.16 0.51 ± 1.08
Depression symptoms at the time of diagnosis
  Depressed mood and other emotional problems, n (%) - 7791 (88.0) 1593 (84.9) 2478 (88.5) 1718 (88.6) 1216 (88.4) 786 (91.2)
  Eating pattern changes, n (%) - 1859 (21.0) 319 (17.0) 570 (20.3) 462 (23.8) 318 (23.1) 190 (22.0)
  Sleep pattern changes, n (%) - 3876 (43.8) 730 (38.9) 1231 (43.9) 906 (46.7) 642 (46.7) 367 (42.6)
  Mental changes, n (%) - 4340 (49.0) 748 (39.9) 1362 (48.6) 992 (51.2) 723 (52.5) 515 (59.7)
  Social problems, n (%) - 2810 (31.7) 481 (25.6) 854 (30.5) 628 (32.4) 503 (36.6) 344 (39.9)
  Physical problems, n (%) - 1342 (15.2) 251 (13.4) 433 (15.5) 293 (15.1) 230 (16.7) 135 (15.7)
Anxiety and sleep problems
  Diagnosed with anxiety totalc n (%) 1668 (5.5) 6481 (73.2) 1157 (61.7) 2007 (71.7) 1468 (75.7) 1114 (81.0) 735 (85.3)
  Diagnosed with any sleep problem, n (%) 1995 (6.5) 3531 (39.9) 471 (25.1) 1073 (38.3) 866 (44.7) 646 (46.9) 475 (55.1)
Prescription use
  For anxiety totalc, n (%) 815 (2.7) 3892 (44.0) 708 (37.7) 1183 (42.2) 897 (46.3) 661 (48.0) 443 (51.4)
  For sleep totald, n (%) 715 (2.3) 1536 (17.4) 200 (10.7) 488 (17.4) 363 (18.7) 276 (20.1) 209 (24.2)
GAD-7 scores
  GAD-7 score, mean ± SD 1.16 ± 2.10 8.00 ± 5.57 3.10 ± 3.26 6.33 ± 3.99 9.01 ± 4.41 12.16 ± 4.59 15.15 ± 4.84
  1. aRespondents with depression diagnosis: those who self-reported physician diagnosis of depression and reported experiencing depression in the past 12 months
  2. bRespondents without depression diagnosis: those who had no self-reported physician diagnosis of depression, reported not experiencing depression in the past 12 months, and had PHQ-9 scores ≤ 4
  3. cAnxiety total: Anxiety, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, PTSD, OCD, panic disorder, phobias
  4. dSleep total: Sleep difficulties, insomnia, sleep apnea
  5. *P < 0.001 for all variables compared between ‘with depression diagnosis (total)’ vs. ‘without depression diagnosis’ groups
  6. #P < 0.001 for all variables across all severity groups using an overall omnibus test, except “physical problems” for which P = 0.176
  7. CCI Charlson comorbidity index, GAD-7 Generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale, OCD Obsessive–compulsive disorder, PHQ-9 The Patient Health Questionnaire 9, PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder, SD Standard deviation