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Causes, treatment and prevention of suicide

Section edited by Ute Lewitzka

This section will cover all aspects of a wide range of suicidality, considering studies of suicidal behaviour, its causes and effects but also its prevention and intervention approaches. Research which investigates psychological and sociological as well as neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological aspects of suicidal behaviour are also of great interest. The section also incorporates topics such as assessment and risk-management approaches, ethical issues in intervention research, cross-cultural risk factors for suicide as well as the needs of those bereaved by suicide.

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  1. Suicidal behavior is a prevalent psychiatric emergency in HIV-infected adults. Detection of suicidal ideation is important in planning early psychiatric intervention and optimizing HIV/AIDS management. Charact...

    Authors: Youdiil Ophinni, Adrian, Kristiana Siste, Martina Wiwie, Gina Anindyajati, Enjeline Hanafi, Reza Damayanti and Yoshitake Hayashi

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:255

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Self-harm, whether attributed to suicidal or non-suicidal motives, is associated with several poor outcomes in young people, including eventual suicide. Much of our understanding of self-harm in young people i...

    Authors: Emmanuel N-B Quarshie, Mitch G. Waterman and Allan O. House

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:234

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is proposed to predict behavioral intention. We conducted this study aimed to investigate the effects of Suicidal Ideation (SI) and constructs of TPB on suicidal intention.

    Authors: Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai, Mehdi Khezeli, Seyyed-Mohammad-Mahdi Hazavehei, Saeed Ariapooran, Ali Reza Soltanian and Alireza Ahmadi

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:217

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of mental health services are delivered in outpatient settings, the effect of changes in non-hospital-based mental health care on increased suicide rates is larg...

    Authors: Peiyin Hung, Susan H Busch, Yi-Wen Shih, Alecia J McGregor and Shiyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:188

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS) is a therapeutic framework that has been shown to reduce suicidal ideation and overall symptom distress. CAMS has not been previously evaluated...

    Authors: Miriam Santel, Thomas Beblo, Frank Neuner, Michaela Berg, Kristina Hennig-Fast, David A. Jobes and Martin Driessen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:183

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Anxiety is one of the most common psychiatric disorder and imposes a great burden on both the individual and the society. Previous studies indicate a high comorbidity of anxiety disorders and Attention Deficit...

    Authors: Yanmei Shen, Yaru Zhang, Bella Siu Man Chan, Fanchao Meng, Tingyu Yang, Xuerong Luo and Chunxiang Huang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:180

    Content type: Research article

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  7. With increasing levels of suicide and self-harm behaviour in the criminal justice system professionals would benefit from a tool that can identify individuals who may be at risk of self-harm and/or suicidal be...

    Authors: Amanda E. Perry and Mike Horton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:164

    Content type: Research article

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  8. This study aimed to determine conditional dependence relationships of variables that contribute to psychological vulnerability associated with suicide risk. A Bayesian network (BN) was developed and applied to...

    Authors: Jorge Barros, Susana Morales, Arnol García, Orietta Echávarri, Ronit Fischman, Marta Szmulewicz, Claudia Moya, Catalina Núñez and Alemka Tomicic

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:138

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Many persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are treated in long-term specialised care. In this population, suicidal behaviour troubles patients, families, and specialists in the field because it is diffic...

    Authors: Anne Huntjens, L. M. C. Wies van den Bosch, Bram Sizoo, Ad Kerkhof, Marcus J. H. Huibers and Mark van der Gaag

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:127

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. A substantial increase in rates of suicide worldwide, especially among late adolescents and young adults, has been observed. It is important to identify specific risk and protective factors for suicide-related...

    Authors: Bob Lew, Ksenia Chistopolskaya, Augustine Osman, Jenny Mei Yiu Huen, Mansor Abu Talib and Angel Nga Man Leung

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The Delphi technique is a proven and reliable method to create common definitions and to achieve convergence of opinion. This study aimed to prioritize suicide prevention guideline recommendations and to devel...

    Authors: Kim Setkowski, Anton J. L. M. van Balkom, Dave A. Dongelmans and Renske Gilissen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Brief Contact Interventions (BCIs) after a suicide attempt (SA) are an important element of prevention against SA and suicide. They are easier to generalize to an entire population than other forms of interven...

    Authors: Larissa Fossi Djembi, Guillaume Vaiva, Christophe Debien, Stéphane Duhem, Anne-Laure Demarty, Yves-Akoli Koudou and Antoine Messiah

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:26

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Research is required to identify those psychiatric interventions with a protective effect against suicide. The overarching aim of the current study was to examine whether completed suicide in psychiatric patie...

    Authors: Fredrik Holländare, Maria Tillfors, Axel Nordenskjöld and Tabita Sellin

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:13

    Content type: Research article

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  14. It is generally known that firefighters are at increased risk of suicide. However, the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in firefighters have not been thoroughly described to date. The aim of this...

    Authors: Heyeon Park, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Beomjun Min, Sohee Oh and Jeong-Hyun Kim

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:428

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Bullying and suicidal behaviors are a silent public health problem among adolescents. Little is known about the link between bullying and suicidal behaviors in low-income countries such as Tanzania. In the cur...

    Authors: Festo K. Shayo and Paul S. Lawala

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:400

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In the Netherlands, suicide rates showed a sharp incline and this pertains particularly to the province of Noord-Brabant, one of the southern provinces in the Netherlands. This calls for a regional suicide pre...

    Authors: Emma Hofstra, Iman Elfeddali, Margot Metz, Marjan Bakker, Jacobus J. de Jong, Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen and Christina M. van der Feltz-Cornelis

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:364

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Losing an only child is a particularly traumatic and heartbreaking event for parents, which can trigger a lot of emotional responses, including PTSD and suicidal ideation (SI). The objectives of this study wer...

    Authors: Qiong Wang, Longfei Ren, Wenhao Wang, Weihua Xu and Yang Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:352

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Many suicide attempters brought to our emergency department (ED) have been found to have alcohol problems, and this should be taken serious consideration because alcohol use disorder is a risk factor for suici...

    Authors: Jinhee Lee, Seongho Min, Joung-Sook Ahn, Hyun Kim, Yong-Sung Cha, Eugene Oh, Jin Sil Moon and Min-Hyuk Kim

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:350

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Suicide and non-fatal self-harm represent key patient safety events in mental healthcare services. However, additional important learning can also be derived by highlighting examples of optimal practice that h...

    Authors: Donna L. Littlewood, Leah Quinlivan, Jane Graney, Louis Appleby, Pauline Turnbull, Roger T. Webb and Navneet Kapur

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:346

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Crisis hotlines play a key role in suicide prevention worldwide following different approaches regarding risk assessment and management of suicidality. This is to our knowledge the first study investigating de...

    Authors: Ines Heinz, Roland Mergl, Ulrich Hegerl, Christine Rummel-Kluge and Elisabeth Kohls

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:342

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Interoceptive deficits have been found to be associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. However, an objective measure of interoceptive accuracy has not been investigated in participants with suicide ideat...

    Authors: Thomas Forkmann, Eftychia Volz-Sidiropoulou, Trientje Helbing, Barbara Drüke, Verena Mainz, Dajana Rath, Siegfried Gauggel and Tobias Teismann

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:334

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Despite decades of research, the rate of death from suicide is rising in the United States. Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon and, to date, no validated biomarkers that predict suicidal behavi...

    Authors: Allison C. Nugent, Elizabeth D. Ballard, Lawrence T. Park and Carlos A. Zarate Jr

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:332

    Content type: Debate

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  23. Previous research suggests that family caregivers contemplate suicide at a higher rate than the general population. Much of this research has been disease specific and in relatively small samples. This study a...

    Authors: Karlijn J. Joling, Margreet ten Have, Ron de Graaf and Siobhan T. O’Dwyer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:320

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Self-harm, an act of self-poisoning or self-injury irrespective of motivation, is a major public health concern. Use of alcohol prior to or alongside acts of self-harm is common but little is known about the a...

    Authors: Ambrose J. Melson and Rory C. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:319

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Opposing risks have been identified between different prosocial activities, with volunteering having been linked to better mental health while caregiving has been associated with higher prevalence and incidenc...

    Authors: Michael Rosato, Foteini Tseliou, David M. Wright, Aideen Maguire and Dermot O’Reilly

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:296

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The screening of digital footprint for clinical purposes relies on the capacity of wearable technologies to collect data and extract relevant information’s for patient management. Artificial intelligence (AI) ...

    Authors: Sofian Berrouiguet, María Luisa Barrigón, Jorge Lopez Castroman, Philippe Courtet, Antonio Artés-Rodríguez and Enrique Baca-García

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:277

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Suicide has profound effects on families and communities, but is a statistically rare event. Psychological autopsies using a case-control design allow researchers to examine risk factors for suicide, using a v...

    Authors: E. Arensman, C. Larkin, J. McCarthy, S. Leitao, P. Corcoran, E. Williamson, C. McAuliffe, I. J. Perry, E. Griffin, E. M. Cassidy, C. Bradley, N. Kapur, J. Kinahan, A. Cleary, T. Foster, J. Gallagher…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:275

    Content type: Technical advance

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  28. Diabetes is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease which is prone to more psychiatric complications like suicide; however, research into this area is limited. Assessing suicidal plan and attempt as well a...

    Authors: Mogesie Necho, Solomon Mekonnen, Kelemua Haile, Mengesha Birkie and Asmare Belete

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:258

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Suicide is a serious public health concern. Depression is the main gateway to suicidal behavior. The already established relationship between depression and suicidal risk should now focus on the investigation ...

    Authors: Miquel Roca, Antonio Riera-López del Amo, Pau Riera-Serra, Mª. Angeles Pérez-Ara, Adoración Castro, J. Roman Juan, Mauro García-Toro, Patricia García-Pazo and Margalida Gili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:253

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Coercive measures is a topic that has long been discussed in the field of psychiatry. Despite global reports of reductions in the use of restraint episodes due to new regulations, it is still questionable if p...

    Authors: Maritta Välimäki, Min Yang, Tero Vahlberg, Tella Lantta, Virve Pekurinen, Minna Anttila and Sharon-Lise Normand

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:230

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Suicidal ideation is an important public health issue due to devastating mortality. In the meantime, interpersonal trust was found to be negatively associated with mental disorder and physical health. Although...

    Authors: Zihang Yu, Lingzhong Xu, Long Sun, Jiao Zhang, Wenzhe Qin, Jiajia Li, Gan Ding, Qian Wang, Jing Zhu and Su Xie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:206

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Worldwide, approximately 800,000 persons die by suicide every year; with rates of suicide attempts estimated to be much higher. Suicidal persons often suffer from a mental disorder but stigma, lack of availabl...

    Authors: Mareike Dreier, Julia Ludwig, Martin Härter, Olaf von dem Knesebeck, Johanna Baumgardt, Thomas Bock, Jörg Dirmaier, Alison J. Kennedy, Susan A. Brumby and Sarah Liebherz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:152

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Construction workers are at elevated risk of suicide. MATES in Construction (MATES) is one of the few suicide prevention programs that explicitly address this problem. The MATES program includes an integrated ...

    Authors: A. Milner, T. L. King, A. J. Scovelle, P. J. Batterham, B. Kelly, A. D. LaMontagne, S. B. Harvey, J. Gullestrup and C. Lockwood

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:146

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. Metabolic disturbances have been correlated with suicidality, but little is known about the association between suicide risk and metabolic disturbances among individuals with depression. This study was to eval...

    Authors: Yue-Jiao Ma, Dong-Fang Wang, Ming Yuan, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Jiang Long, Shu-Bao Chen, Qiu-Xia Wu, Xu-Yi Wang, Marguerite Patel, Christopher D. Verrico, Tie-Qiao Liu and Xiang-Yang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:144

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Suicide is a major public health problem, and it remains unclear which processes link suicidal ideation and plans to the act of suicide. Growing evidence shows that the majority of suicidal patients diagnosed ...

    Authors: J. S. van Bentum, M. Sijbrandij, A. J. F. M. Kerkhof, A. Huisman, A. R. Arntz, E. A. Holmes, G. Franx, J. Mokkenstorm and M. J. H. Huibers

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Suicidality has been under-researched in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most studies have linked increased suicidality in ASD to psychiatric comorbidities such as depression. Here we investigated, from a neu...

    Authors: Luisa Weiner, Amandine Flin, Jean-Baptiste Causin, Sébastien Weibel and Gilles Bertschy

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:126

    Content type: Case report

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  37. Members of the public can potentially take action to assist someone in their social network who is distressed and at risk of suicide. The present study used data from a community survey to examine training exp...

    Authors: Anthony F. Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto, Julie-Anne Fischer and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:68

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Suicide bereavement is a risk factor for adverse outcomes related to grief, social functioning, mental health and suicidal behaviour. Consequently, suicide bereavement support (i.e., postvention) has been iden...

    Authors: Karl Andriessen, Karolina Krysinska, Nicole T. M. Hill, Lennart Reifels, Jo Robinson, Nicola Reavley and Jane Pirkis

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:49

    Content type: Research article

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  39. There is evidence that several intervention types, including psychotherapy, reduce repeat suicide attempts. However, these interventions are less applicable to the heterogeneous patients admitted to emergency ...

    Authors: Masatoshi Inagaki, Yoshitaka Kawashima, Naohiro Yonemoto and Mitsuhiko Yamada

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:44

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Physical illness and mental disorders play a significant role in fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour. However, there is no clear evidence for the effect of physical and mental illness co-occurrence (multimo...

    Authors: Katerina Kavalidouª, Daniel J. Smith, Geoff Der and Rory C. O’Connor

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There are an estimated 258 million international migrants worldwide. In Asia low-skilled workers often emigrate on a temporary basis (2–3 years) without their families. There is significant concern over the me...

    Authors: Duleeka Knipe, Helen Lambert, Melissa Pearson, Michael Eddleston, Shaluka Jayamanne, Kolitha Wickramage, Keith Hawton, Flemming Konradsen, Chris Metcalfe and David Gunnell

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:25

    Content type: Research article

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  42. For those who have experienced suicidal behaviour, discharge from the hospital emergency department and other acute settings represents a period of heightened vulnerability for future suicide risk. Current gui...

    Authors: Nicole T. M. Hill, Fiona Shand, Michelle Torok, Lyndal Halliday and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:6

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Bipolar and other psychiatric disorders are associated with considerably increased risk of suicidal behaviour, which may include self-poisoning with medication used to treat the disorder. Therefore, choice of ...

    Authors: Anne E. Ferrey, Galit Geulayov, Deborah Casey, Claudia Wells, Alice Fuller, Clare Bankhead, Jennifer Ness, Caroline Clements, David Gunnell, Navneet Kapur and Keith Hawton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:399

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Worldwide, the elderly are at a greater risk of suicide than other age groups. There is a paucity of research exploring risk factors for suicide in hospitalized elderly patients. Therefore, a study designed to...

    Authors: Su-Jung Liao, Bo-Jian Wu, Tse-Tsung Liu, Chao-Ping Chou and Jiin-Ru Rong

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:397

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Suicidal ideation and suicidal risk assessment are major concerns for health professionals. The perception of a low level of parental support is a risk factor for suicidal tendencies among adolescents, but lit...

    Authors: Melissa Macalli, Marie Tournier, Cédric Galéra, Ilaria Montagni, Aicha Soumare, Sylvana M. Côté and Christophe Tzourio

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:373

    Content type: Research article

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