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Causes, treatment and prevention of suicide

Section edited by Ute Lewitzka

This section will cover all aspects of a wide range of suicidality, considering studies of suicidal behaviour, its causes and effects but also its prevention and intervention approaches. Research which investigates psychological and sociological as well as neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological aspects of suicidal behaviour are also of great interest. The section also incorporates topics such as assessment and risk-management approaches, ethical issues in intervention research, cross-cultural risk factors for suicide as well as the needs of those bereaved by suicide.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Suicide is a global problem and suicidal behavior is common in acute psychiatric wards. Inpatient suicides regularly occur with 10.4/100,000 such deaths recorded in the UK in 2016. Inpatient suicides are poten...

    Authors: Yvonne F Awenat, Sarah Peters, Patricia A Gooding, Daniel Pratt, Emma Shaw-Núñez, Kamelia Harris and Gillian Haddock

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:334

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) is a relatively new instrument for the assessment of suicidal ideation and behaviour that is widely used in clinical and research settings. The predictive pr...

    Authors: Åsa U. Lindh, Margda Waern, Karin Beckman, Ellinor Salander Renberg, Marie Dahlin and Bo Runeson

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:319

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Suicidal ideation is common in patients suffering from panic disorder. The present study investigated rates of suicidal ideation and risk factors for suicidal ideation in a sample of primary care patients suff...

    Authors: Tobias Teismann, Karoline Lukaschek, Thomas S. Hiller, Jörg Breitbart, Christian Brettschneider, Ulrike Schumacher, Jürgen Margraf and Jochen Gensichen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:305

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  4. Content type: Research article

    This study was designed to assess the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Future Disposition Inventory-24 (FDI-24) in a lar...

    Authors: Lu Yuan, Dong-Fang Wang, Bob Lew, Augustine Osman and Cun-Xian Jia

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:299

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have identified factors associated with admission to hospital after suicide spectrum behaviors. In this study, we aim to identify specific factors associated with psychiatric hospitalization a...

    Authors: Juliette Salles, Julie Calonge, Nicolas Franchitto, Emmanuelle Bougon and Laurent Schmitt

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:287

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Suicide accounts for approximately 1.4% of deaths globally and is the 15th leading cause of death overall. There are no reliable data on the epidemiology of completed suicide in rural areas of many developing ...

    Authors: Mary A. Bitta, Ioannis Bakolis, Symon M. Kariuki, Gideon Nyutu, George Mochama, Graham Thornicroft and Charles R. J. C. Newton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:267

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), which involves self-damaging behavior (e.g., cutting) causes tissue damage and places people at elevated risk for future suicidal behaviors. Yet few specific treatments for NSSI...

    Authors: Jill M. Hooley, Kathryn R. Fox, Shirley B. Wang and Anita N. D. Kwashie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:264

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The internal suicide debate hypothesis assumes that in a suicidal crisis, individuals are involved in an internal struggle over whether to live or die. Reasons for living (RFL) and Reasons for dying (RFD) are ...

    Authors: Juliane Brüdern, Annabarbara Stähli, Anja Gysin-Maillart, Konrad Michel, Thomas Reisch, David A. Jobes and Jeannette Brodbeck

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:234

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone...

    Authors: Gregory Armstrong, Natalie Ironfield, Claire M. Kelly, Katrina Dart, Kerry Arabena, Kathy Bond, Nicola Reavley and Anthony F. Jorm

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:228

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Research on the relationship between insomnia and nightmares, and suicidal ideation (SI) has produced variable findings, especially with regard to military samples. This study investigates whether depression m...

    Authors: J. Don Richardson, Lisa King, Kate St. Cyr, Philippe Shnaider, Maya L. Roth, Felicia Ketcheson, Ken Balderson and Jon D. Elhai

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:204

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Adolescents treated for self-poisoning with medication have a high prevalence of mental health problems and constitute a high-risk population for self-harm repetition. However, little is known about whether th...

    Authors: Ping Qin, Shihua Sun, Anne Seljenes Bøe, Barbara Stanley and Lars Mehlum

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:200

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  12. Content type: Research article

    When a person is in severe distress, people in their social network can potentially take action to reduce the person’s suicide risk. The present study used data from a community survey to examine whether peopl...

    Authors: Anthony F. Jorm, Angela Nicholas, Jane Pirkis, Alyssia Rossetto and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:132

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Since 2010, suicide has been the most important cause of mortality in youth aged 15 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Depression is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, delibe...

    Authors: Mandy W. M. Gijzen, Daan H. M. Creemers, Sanne P. A. Rasing, Filip Smit and Rutger C. M. E. Engels

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:124

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Few studies have focused on exploring the association of self-efficacy and suicidal behaviour. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between health-related self-efficacy and suicidality outcomes...

    Authors: Vivian Isaac, Chia-Yi Wu, Craig S. McLachlan and Ming-Been Lee

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:126

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Every year, more than 800,000 people worldwide die by suicide. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of brief psychological interventions in addressing suicidal thoughts...

    Authors: Rose McCabe, Ruth Garside, Amy Backhouse and Penny Xanthopoulou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:120

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  16. Content type: Research article

    There is a lack of evidence for the role of loneliness on suicide using psychological autopsy method, and the validity of proxy informants’ reports on loneliness is not well established. This study aimed to in...

    Authors: Lu Niu, Cunxian Jia, Zhenyu Ma, Guojun Wang, Zhenjun Yu and Liang Zhou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:116

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Risk scales are used widely in the management of patients presenting to hospital following self-harm. However, there is evidence that their diagnostic accuracy in predicting repeat self-harm is limited. Their ...

    Authors: Sarah Steeg, Leah Quinlivan, Rebecca Nowland, Robert Carroll, Deborah Casey, Caroline Clements, Jayne Cooper, Linda Davies, Duleeka Knipe, Jennifer Ness, Rory C. O’Connor, Keith Hawton, David Gunnell and Nav Kapur

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:113

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) has been the most frequently used instrument for the measurement of hopelessness in the past 40 years. Only recently has it officially been translated into German. The psychom...

    Authors: Sören Kliem, Anna Lohmann, Thomas Mößle and Elmar Brähler

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:110

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In Japan, although many suicidal studies were previously conducted in tertiary emergency department (ED) settings, no published studies have reported on suicidal patients presenting to the secondary EDs. The a...

    Authors: Izumi Chihara, Ryusuke Ae, Yuka Kudo, Ritei Uehara, Nobuko Makino, Yuri Matsubara, Teppei Sasahara, Yasuko Aoyama, Kazuhiko Kotani and Yosikazu Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:112

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Suicide within the Amerindian community of Camopi (1741 inhabitants) in French Guiana has been an increasing problem widely reported in the media leading the French Government to mandate a parliamentary missio...

    Authors: Rémi Pacot, Basma Garmit, Marianne Pradem, Mathieu Nacher and Paul Brousse

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:99

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  21. Content type: Research article

    High rates of mental disorders, suicidality, and interpersonal violence early in the military career have raised interest in implementing preventive interventions with high-risk new enlistees. The Army Study t...

    Authors: Samantha L. Bernecker, Anthony J. Rosellini, Matthew K. Nock, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter M. Gutierrez, Irving Hwang, Thomas E. Joiner, James A. Naifeh, Nancy A. Sampson, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Murray B. Stein, Robert J. Ursano and Ronald C. Kessler

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:87

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  22. Content type: Research article

    A number of Delphi expert consensus studies have been carried out with different countries and cultural groups to develop guidelines on how a member of the public should provide assistance to a person who is s...

    Authors: Anthony F. Jorm, Anna M. Ross and Erminia Colucci

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:58

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Suicide is a major global public health problem with more than 800,000 incidents worldwide annually. Seventy-five percent of the global suicides occur in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pakistan is a ...

    Authors: Sualeha S. Shekhani, Shagufta Perveen, Dur-e-Sameen Hashmi, Khawaja Akbar, Sara Bachani and Murad M. Khan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:44

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Despite the significant impact of migraine on patients and societies, few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the association between migraine and suicidal behavior. The objec...

    Authors: Hanna Y. Berhane, Bethannie Jamerson-Dowlen, Lauren E. Friedman, Yemane Berhane, Michelle A. Williams and Bizu Gelaye

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:46

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) and other peripheral autonomic electrical parameters have been used as indicators of emotional states, including depressive states and suicidal state. We aimed to review EDA resear...

    Authors: Marco Sarchiapone, Carla Gramaglia, Miriam Iosue, Vladimir Carli, Laura Mandelli, Alessandro Serretti, Debora Marangon and Patrizia Zeppegno

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:22

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  26. Content type: Research article

    In Norway, there are about 550 suicides recorded each year. The number of suicide attempts is 10–15 times higher. Suicide attempt is a major risk factor for suicide, in particular when violent methods are used...

    Authors: Per Sverre Persett, Tine K. Grimholt, Oivind Ekeberg, Dag Jacobsen and Hilde Myhren

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:21

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  27. Content type: Research article

    WHO data shows that female immigrants in Europe attempt suicide at higher rates than ‘native’ women and ‘native’ and immigrant men. Empirical studies addressing attempted suicide of female immigrants of Caribb...

    Authors: Diana D. van Bergen, Merijn Eikelenboom and Petra P. van de Looij-Jansen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:14

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Cholesterol has been associated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, there is growing evidence about crucial requirement of neuron membrane cholesterol in the organization and functi...

    Authors: Marcela Segoviano-Mendoza, Manuel Cárdenas-de la Cruz, José Salas-Pacheco, Fernando Vázquez-Alaniz, Osmel La Llave-León, Francisco Castellanos-Juárez, Jazmín Méndez-Hernández, Marcelo Barraza-Salas, Ernesto Miranda-Morales, Oscar Arias-Carrión and Edna Méndez-Hernández

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:7

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Prior research has validated the construct of a suicide crisis syndrome (SCS), a specific psychological state that precedes and may precipitate suicidal behavior. The feeling of entrapment is a central concept...

    Authors: Shuang Li, Zimri S. Yaseen, Hae-Joon Kim, Jessica Briggs, Molly Duffy, Anna Frechette-Hagan, Lisa J. Cohen and Igor I. Galynker

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2018 18:4

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  30. Content type: Research article

    People bereaved by suicide are at increased risk of suicide attempt and suicide, but explanations for these associations remain theoretical. It is possible that the experience of suicide bereavement modifies p...

    Authors: Alexandra Pitman, Hedvig Nesse, Nicola Morant, Valeriya Azorina, Fiona Stevenson, Michael King and David Osborn

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:400

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Despite high rates of youth suicide attempt, little is known about patterns of functional impairment in terms of sickness absence and disability pension (SA/DP) before and after an attempt. The aim was to iden...

    Authors: Mo Wang, Magnus Helgesson, Syed Rahman, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler and Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:393

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Suicidal ideation has been identified as one of the major predictors of attempted or actual suicide. Routinely screening individuals for endorsing suicidal thoughts could save lives and protect many from sever...

    Authors: Sören Kliem, Anna Lohmann, Thomas Mößle and Elmar Brähler

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:389

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Although Primary care is crucial for suicide prevention, clinicians tend to report completed suicides in their care as non-preventable. We aimed to examine systemic inadequacies in suicide prevention from the ...

    Authors: Gerard Leavey, Sharon Mallon, Janeet Rondon-Sulbaran, Karen Galway, Michael Rosato and Lynette Hughes

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:369

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Suicide affects people from different backgrounds, ethnical groups, socio-economic status and geographical locations. In Latin America, suicide reports arescarce, specially in Andean countries. In Ecuador, ver...

    Authors: Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Katherine Simbaña, Lenin Gómez, Aquiles R. Henriquez-Trujillo, Fernando Cornejo-Leon, Eduardo Vasconez, Diana Castillo and Ginés Viscor

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:342

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution o...

    Authors: Michelle Torok, Paul Konings, Philip J. Batterham and Helen Christensen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:339

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Suicide by aggressive physical methods such as firearms, hanging, and jumping is well known; however, different factors may influence a person while selecting a particular method. The aim of this study was to ...

    Authors: Yosra Azizpour, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Khairollah Asadollahi, Satar Kaikhavani and Maryam Bagheri

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:304

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  37. Content type: Research article

    There is a critical need for empirical data concerning the association of personality traits and attempted suicide with and without psychiatric disorders in mainland China. The objective of the present study i...

    Authors: Bo Bi, Wei Liu, Die Zhou, Xu Fu, Xiaoxia Qin and Jiali Wu

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:294

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Online and mobile telephone applications (‘apps’) have the potential to improve the scalability of effective interventions for suicidal ideation and self-harm. The aim of this review was therefore to investiga...

    Authors: Katrina Witt, Matthew J. Spittal, Gregory Carter, Jane Pirkis, Sarah Hetrick, Dianne Currier, Jo Robinson and Allison Milner

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:297

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Suicide accounts for over 58,000 deaths in Europe per annum, where suicide attempts are estimated to be 20 times higher. Males have been found to have a disproportionately lower rate of suicide attempts and an...

    Authors: Aislinné Freeman, Roland Mergl, Elisabeth Kohls, András Székely, Ricardo Gusmao, Ella Arensman, Nicole Koburger, Ulrich Hegerl and Christine Rummel-Kluge

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:234

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the p...

    Authors: Sigrid Dierickx, Luc Deliens, Joachim Cohen and Kenneth Chambaere

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:203

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  41. Content type: Study protocol

    Brief Admission is a crisis and risk management strategy in which self-harming and suicidal individuals with three or more diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder self-admit to hospital at times...

    Authors: Sophie I. Liljedahl, Marjolein Helleman, Daiva Daukantaité, Åsa Westrin and Sofie Westling

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2017 17:220

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