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Mood disorders

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging modality that provides a direct and quantitative assessment of cortical haemodynamic response during a cognitive task. It may be used t...

    Authors: Syeda Fabeha Husain, Tong-Boon Tang, Wilson W. Tam, Bach X. Tran, Cyrus S. Ho and Roger C. Ho

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Sleep disturbance and executive function impairment are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), though the relationship between the two remains unclear. We investigated this association in fir...

    Authors: Feihuan Cui, Qi Liu, Xiaozhen Lv, Rainer Leonhart, Hongjun Tian, Jing Wei, Kerang Zhang, Gang Zhu, Qiaoling Chen, Gang Wang, Xueyi Wang, Nan Zhang, Yu Huang, Tianmei Si and Xin Yu

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Confinement due to COVID-19 has increased mental ill-health. Few studies unpack the risk and protective factors associated with mental ill-health and addictions that might inform future preparedness.

    Authors: Eva Jané-Llopis, Peter Anderson, Lidia Segura, Edurne Zabaleta, Regina Muñoz, Gemma Ruiz, Jürgen Rehm, Carmen Cabezas and Joan Colom

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:194

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant and distressing sensations in the lower limbs that are more pronounced in the evening, commence or worsen at rest, and show p...

    Authors: Mustafa Abdul Karim, Nadeen Al-Baz, Sami Ouanes, Majid Alabdulla and Peter M. Haddad

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:180

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Negative coping strategies and behavioral problems are common among Chinese left-behind children, which are relate to a variety of negative consequences. At this stage of development, the relevant factors of c...

    Authors: Shu Cui, Fangshuo Cheng, Ling Zhang, Chao Zhang, Qiuyu Yuan, Cui Huang, Kai Zhang and Xiaoqin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:158

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder with large disease burden, high levels of relapse or persistence, and overall suboptimal outcomes of protocolized pharmacological and psych...

    Authors: H. Riese, L. von Klipstein, R. A. Schoevers, D. C. van der Veen and M. N. Servaas

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:143

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. After decades of anti-stigma initiatives, the Advancing Research To Eliminate Mental Illness Stigma (ARTEMIS) intervention study is one of the first in Singapore to evaluate the effects of an anti-stigma inter...

    Authors: Chong Min Janrius GOH, Shazana SHAHWAN, Jue Hua LAU, Wei Jie ONG, Gregory Tee Hng TAN, Ellaisha SAMARI, Kian Woon KWOK, Mythily SUBRAMANIAM and Siow Ann CHONG

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Little is known about the influence on outcome of exploration of the patient-therapist relationship (that is, transference work) in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents woul...

    Authors: Randi Ulberg, Benjamin Hummelen, Anne Grete Hersoug, Nick Midgley, Per Andreas Høglend and Hanne-Sofie Johnsen Dahl

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:106

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Bipolar disorder is a common psychiatric disorder with a massive psychological and social burden. Research indicates that treatment adherence is not good in these patients. The families’ knowledge about the di...

    Authors: Nasim Mousavi, Marzieh Norozpour, Zahra Taherifar, Morteza Naserbakht and Amir Shabani

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:83

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Existing therapies for depression are effective, but many patients fail to recover or relapse. To improve care for patients, more research into the effectiveness and working mechanisms of treatments is needed....

    Authors: Jacqueline G. L. A-Tjak, Nexhmedin Morina, Maurice Topper and Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (‘TMS’) is becoming a gold standard treatment for pharmacoresistant depression, we lack neural target biomarkers for identifying who is most likely to resp...

    Authors: Leanne M. Williams, John T. Coman, Patrick C. Stetz, Nicole C. Walker, F. Andrew Kozel, Mark S. George, Jong Yoon, Laura M. Hack, Michelle R. Madore, Kelvin O. Lim, Noah S. Philip and Paul E. Holtzheimer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:35

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Bipolar disorder is the fourth most common mental health condition, affecting ~ 1% of UK adults. Lithium is an effective treatment for prevention of relapse and hospital admission, and is widely recommended as...

    Authors: Ceri Parfitt, Christopher J. Duff, Jonathan Scargill, Lewis Green, David Holland, Adrian H. Heald and Anthony A. Fryer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  13. It has been proposed that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can put women at risk for mental illness in the pregnancy and postpartum periods. While some studies have found strong support for this propositio...

    Authors: Nicole Racine, Chloe Devereaux, Jessica E. Cooke, Rachel Eirich, Jenney Zhu and Sheri Madigan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:28

    Content type: Research article

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  14. High serum uric acid (SUA) levels may provide protection against depression and anxiety through its defensive role in oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of the independent assoc...

    Authors: Rui Zhong, Qingling Chen, Mengmeng Li, Nan Li, Chaojia Chu, Jing Li, Xinyue Zhang and Weihong Lin

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2021 21:17

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Societies strive for fast-delivered, evidence-based and need-oriented depression treatment within budget constraints. To explore potential improvements, selective contracts can be implemented. Here, we evaluat...

    Authors: Alexander Engels, Hans-Helmut König, Julia Luise Magaard, Martin Härter, Sabine Hawighorst-Knapstein, Ariane Chaudhuri and Christian Brettschneider

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:591

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The goal of this study was to investigate treatment outcome and related intervention processes of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus health qigong-based cognitive therapy versus waitlist control among ...

    Authors: Sunny H. W. Chan, Wendy W. K. Chan, June Y. W. Chao and Phyllis K. L. Chan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:590

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a considerable public health concern. In spite of evidence-based treatments for MDD, many patients do not improve and relapse is common. Therefore, improving treatment outcom...

    Authors: Michèle Schmitter, Jan Spijker, Filip Smit, Indira Tendolkar, Anne-Marie Derksen, Peter Oostelbos, Ben F. M. Wijnen, Tessa J. van Doesum, Jasper A. J. Smits and Janna N. Vrijsen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:585

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder requires that the symptoms cannot be better explained by a medical condition. Epilepsy is in some cases associated with an affective syndrome mimicking an unstable bipolar II...

    Authors: O. K. Drange, S. G. Sæther, P. I. Finseth, G. Morken, A. E. Vaaler, V. Arntsen, O. Henning, O. A. Andreassen, T. Elvsåshagen, U. F. Malt and E. Bøen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:582

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Low levels of the soluble tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and depression are linked to cardiovascular disease. Galectin-3, inadequate glycemic control and low high-density lipopr...

    Authors: Eva O. Melin, Jonatan Dereke and Magnus Hillman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:574

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The pre-melancholic model described by Tellenbach may provide a common model for understanding the psychological implications of the lockdown. In this case report, we describe a rare catatonic status as a psyc...

    Authors: Giuseppe Sarli, Lorenzo Polidori, David Lester and Maurizio Pompili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:558

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Several evidence-based practice guidelines have been developed to better treat bipolar disorder. However, the articles cited in these guidelines were not sufficiently based on real-world clinical practice.

    Authors: Keita Tokumitsu, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Naoto Adachi, Yukihisa Kubota, Yoichiro Watanabe, Kazuhira Miki, Takaharu Azekawa, Koji Edagawa, Eiichi Katsumoto, Seiji Hongo, Eiichiro Goto, Hitoshi Ueda, Masaki Kato, Reiji Yoshimura, Atsuo Nakagawa, Toshiaki Kikuchi…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:555

    Content type: Research article

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  22. To investigate the risk of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in patients with depression by examining their clinical features, early prescription patterns, and early and lifetime comorbidities.

    Authors: Shiau-Shian Huang, Hsi-Han Chen, Jui Wang, Wei J. Chen, Hsi-Chung Chen and Po-Hsiu Kuo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:541

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Little is known about the burden of common mental disorders in Russia despite high levels of suicide and alcohol-related mortality. Here we investigated levels of symptoms, self-reports of ever having received...

    Authors: Sarah Cook, Alexander V. Kudryavtsev, Natalia Bobrova, Lyudmila Saburova, Diana Denisova, Sofia Malyutina, Glyn Lewis and David A. Leon

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:537

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Limitations of current therapy of depression highlight the need for an immediately available, easily implementable add-on treatment option with high acceptance from patients. Hyperthermic baths (HTB) are a for...

    Authors: Johannes Naumann, Iris Kruza, Luisa Denkel, Gunver Kienle and Roman Huber

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Anxiety and depression are in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in women, strongest for the urgency component of UI. The role of psychotropic drugs in this...

    Authors: Gunhild Felde, Anders Engeland and Steinar Hunskaar

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:521

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Pharmacogenetic testing (PGx) has the potential to improve the quality of psychiatric prescribing by considering patients’ genetic profile. However, there is limited scientific evidence supporting its efficacy...

    Authors: Bonnie M. Vest, Laura O. Wray, Laura A. Brady, Michael E. Thase, Gregory P. Beehler, Sara R. Chapman, Leland E. Hull and David W. Oslin

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:518

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Major depressive disorder represents (MDD) a major cause of disability and disease burden. Beside antidepressant medication, psychotherapy is a key approach of treatment. Schema therapy has been shown to be ef...

    Authors: Johannes Kopf-Beck, Petra Zimmermann, Samy Egli, Martin Rein, Nils Kappelmann, Julia Fietz, Jeanette Tamm, Katharina Rek, Susanne Lucae, Anna-Katharine Brem, Philipp Sämann, Leonhard Schilbach and Martin E. Keck

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:506

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. This study aimed to screen cardiovascular patients for depressive symptoms at a tertiary centre in Trinidad and Tobago; and to determine any significant associations amongst patients’ demographics, comorbiditi...

    Authors: Naveen Seecheran, Cathy-Lee Jagdeo, Rajeev Seecheran, Valmiki Seecheran, Sangeeta Persad, Lakshmipatty Peram, Matthew Evans, Justine Edwards, Sheri Thackoorcharan, Britney Davis, Shari Davis, Barbrianna Dawkins, Anisha Dayaram, Michelle De Freitas, Tsarina Deonarinesingh, Jiovanna Dhanai…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:498

    Content type: Research article

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  29. A number of studies have explored the association between depression and ghrelin, leptin, and cortisol; further, postprandial C-peptide levels have a therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Howe...

    Authors: Yu Ming Sang, Li Jun Wang, Hong Xian Mao, Xue Yong Lou, Yi Jun Zhu and Yue Hua Zhu

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:490

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common mood disorder that is often goes misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. Recently, machine learning techniques have been combined with neuroimaging methods to aid in the diagnosis of BP...

    Authors: Hao Li, Liqian Cui, Liping Cao, Yizhi Zhang, Yueheng Liu, Wenhao Deng and Wenjin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:488

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Depression affects approximately 7.1% of the United States population every year and has an annual economic burden of over $210 billion dollars. Several recent studies have sought to investigate the pathophysi...

    Authors: Avery D. Franzen, Tukiet T. Lam, Kenneth R. Williams, Angus C. Nairn, Ronald S. Duman, Monica Sathyanesan, Vikas Kumar, Linda L. Carpenter and Samuel S. Newton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:481

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess mental disorders. However, research on its cross-cultural measurement invariance is not yet sufficient. This study ...

    Authors: Yan Zhou, Jing Xu and Winfried Rief

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:480

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. To assess the reliability and validity of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to assess the feasibility of its use in psychiatric hospitals in China.

    Authors: Yue Sun, Zhaoyan Fu, Qijing Bo, Zhen Mao, Xin Ma and Chuanyue Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:474

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Depressive illness is associated with significant adverse consequences for patients and their families, and for society. Clinical challenges are encountered in the management of patients suffering from depress...

    Authors: Allan H. Young, Mario F. Juruena, Renske De Zwaef and Koen Demyttenaere

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:471

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  35. Major depression (MDD) and social anxiety (SAD) disorders are debilitating psychiatric conditions characterized by disturbed interpersonal relationships. Despite these impairments in social relationships, rese...

    Authors: Gheysar Maleki, Abbas Zabihzadeh, Mara J. Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics and Fatemeh Mohammadnejad

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:463

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Major depression is believed to affect treatment adherence and overall quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Comorbid major depression contributes to a two-fold higher risk of mortality...

    Authors: Biksegn Asrat, Crick Lund, Fentie Ambaw, Emily Claire Garman and Marguerite Schneider

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:462

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. With deteriorating eyesight, people often become dependent on others for many aspects of their daily lives. As a result, they feel less ‘in control’ and experience lower self-esteem. Lower sense of mastery and...

    Authors: I. M. Maaswinkel, H. P. A. van der Aa, G. H. M. B. van Rens, A. T. F. Beekman, J. W. R. Twisk and R. M. A. van Nispen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:461

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Promoting well-being and preventing poor mental health in young people is a major global priority. Building emotional competence (EC) skills via a mobile app may be an effective, scalable and acceptable way to...

    Authors: A. Newbold, F. C. Warren, R. S. Taylor, C. Hulme, S. Burnett, B. Aas, C. Botella, F. Burkhardt, T. Ehring, J. R. J. Fontaine, M. Frost, A. Garcia-Palacios, E. Greimel, C. Hoessle, A. Hovasapian, VEI Huyghe…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:458

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. Many patients with bipolar II disorder (BPII) prefer to be more informed and involved in their treatment decision-making than they currently are. Limited knowledge and involvement in one’s treatment is also li...

    Authors: Alana Fisher, Rachael Keast, Daniel Costa, Louise Sharpe, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Josephine Anderson and Ilona Juraskova

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:447

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Major depressive episode (MDE) is worldwide one of the most prevalent and disabling mental health conditions. In cases of persistent non-response to treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and eff...

    Authors: Nele Van de Velde, Mitchel Kappen, Ernst H. W. Koster, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Hannelore Tandt, Pieter Verslype, Chris Baeken, Rudi De Raedt, Gilbert Lemmens and Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:453

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. Many university students experience depression and anxiety, both of which have been shown to affect cognitive function. However, the impact of these emotional difficulties on academic performance is unclear. T...

    Authors: Suheir Awadalla, E. Bethan Davies and Cris Glazebrook

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:448

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Although depression is highly prevalent among cancer patients, it is often underdiagnosed and poorly managed particularly in developing nations. These shortcomings can have substantial adverse effects not only...

    Authors: Mikyas Degefa, Benyam Dubale, Fikirte Bayouh, Biniyam Ayele and Yared Zewde

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:446

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Depression has a negative impact on both mental and physical health and is mainly associated with suboptimal HIV tr...

    Authors: Charlotte Bernard, Hélène Font, Zélica Diallo, Richard Ahonon, Judicaël Malick Tine, Franklin N’guessan Abouo, Aristophane Tanon, Eugène Messou, Moussa Seydi, François Dabis and Nathalie de Rekeneire

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:442

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The issue of unblinded outcome-assessors and patients has repeatedly been stressed as a flaw in allegedly double-blind antidepressant trials. Unblinding bias can for example result from a drug‘s marked side ef...

    Authors: Lisa Holper and Michael P. Hengartner

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:437

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Studies on anxiety and depression in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) patients after treatment via endovascular intervention are rare and controversial. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anxiety and ...

    Authors: Xiao-Dong Zhai, Jia-Xing Yu, Yong-Jie Ma, Si-Shi Xiang, Gui-Lin Li, Chuan He, Peng Hu and Hong-Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:430

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. Farmers are a vulnerable population for developing depression or other mental health disorders due to a variety of risk factors in their work context. Beyond face-to-face resources, preventive internet- and te...

    Authors: Johanna Freund, Ingrid Titzler, Janika Thielecke, Lina Braun, Harald Baumeister, Matthias Berking and David Daniel Ebert

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:424

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  47. Undetected depression is common in people with low vision and depression screening has been recommended. However, depression screening is a complex procedure for which low vision practitioners need training. T...

    Authors: Claire Nollett, Rebecca Bartlett, Ryan Man, Timothy Pickles, Barbara Ryan and Jennifer H. Acton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:419

    Content type: Research article

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