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Mood disorders

Section edited by Florian Seemüller

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. The present study aimed to assess the cumulative incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among rural Chinese residents. Furthermore, we intended to estimate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) was associate...

    Authors: Shasha Yu, Xiaofan Guo, Guang Xiao Li, Hongmei Yang, Liqiang Zheng and Yingxian Sun

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:254

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The mental health of pregnant women, particularly those with elevated risks, has been an issue of global concern. Thus far, few studies have addressed the mental health of pregnant women with threatened preter...

    Authors: Qianqian Ni, Guizhi Cheng, An Chen and Seppo Heinonen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:250

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The application of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFAs) supplementation for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been widely discussed in recent years, but its efficacy and application are still controve...

    Authors: Xu-dong Luo, Jin-shan Feng, Zheng Yang, Qiao-ting Huang, Ju-da Lin, Bo Yang, Kuan-pin Su and Ji-yang Pan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:248

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) is an instrument to screen for depression, specifically in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties ...

    Authors: Ibtisam M. Al-Zaru, Audai A. Hayajneh and Tariq Al-Dwaikat

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:246

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Globally, depression is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are also increasing in LMICs, the cond...

    Authors: Christopher F. Akiba, Chifundo C. Zimba, Annie Thom, Maureen Matewere, Vivian Go, Brian Pence, Bradley N. Gaynes and Jones Masiye

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:243

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Depression is a leading cause of disability, and it has been reported that more than 264 million people worldwide have depression. The causes of depression may be numerous, and physical health has also been li...

    Authors: Bich Na Jang, Hyeon Ji Lee, Jae Hong Joo, Eun-Cheol Park and Sung-In Jang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Maternal depression may be chronic and recurrent, with negative effects both on the health of mothers and children. Many studies have shown trajectories of postnatal depressive symptoms but few studies in low-...

    Authors: Nadège Jacques, Marilia Arndt Mesenburg, Alicia Matijasevich, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Alan Stein and Mariangela Freitas Silveira

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:233

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is common among patients with depression, and is associated with clinical and functional disability. However, the risk and risk factors for being granted disability pension...

    Authors: Heidi Taipale, Johan Reutfors, Antti Tanskanen, Lena Brandt, Jari Tiihonen, Allitia DiBernardo, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz and Philip Brenner

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:232

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Housemaids are part of women with low socioeconomic status and most of them are migrant from rural to central part of Ethiopia, less educated, either with poor, separated, single or divorced family and/or dead...

    Authors: Alem K. Ejigu, Zahra R. Seraj, Mahlet W. Gebrelibanos, Tolesa F. Jilcha and Yodit H. Bezabih

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:231

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Depression and anxiety are common psychiatric complications affecting patients with diabetes mellitus. However, data on the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and associated factors among Malaysian diabetic pa...

    Authors: Luke Sy-Cherng Woon, Hatta Bin Sidi, Arun Ravindran, Paula Junggar Gosse, Roslyn Laurie Mainland, Emily Samantha Kaunismaa, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Puteri Arnawati, Amelia Yasmin Zulkifli, Norlaila Mustafa and Mohammad Farris Iman Leong Bin Abdullah

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:227

    Content type: Research article

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  11. VGF (nonacronymic) is a neuropeptide that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, no studies have yet investigated VGF levels in patients with MDD who are at ri...

    Authors: Xingxing Li, Huifei Ge, Dongsheng Zhou, Xiangping Wu, Gangqiao Qi, Zan Chen, Chang Yu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Haihang Yu and Chuang Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:225

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Knowledge about the high rates of depression in people with visual impairment (VI) remains unclear. The study aimed to examine whether depressive symptoms in people with VI were associated with social isolatio...

    Authors: Audun Brunes and Trond Heir

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:224

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is used to measure usability of internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT). However, whether the SUS is a valid instrument to measure usability in this context is uncl...

    Authors: Mayke Mol, Anneke van Schaik, Els Dozeman, Jeroen Ruwaard, Christiaan Vis, David D. Ebert, Anne Etzelmueller, Kim Mathiasen, Bárbara Moles, Teresa Mora, Claus D. Pedersen, Mette Maria Skjøth, Luisa Peleteiro Pensado, Jordi Piera-Jimenez, Didem Gokcay, Burçin Ünlü Ince…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:218

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Living with recurrent, and/or chronic depression requires long-term management in addition to active coping on a day-to-day basis. Previous research on long-term management, and coping with depression mainly f...

    Authors: Dorien Smit, Janneke Peelen, Janna N. Vrijsen and Jan Spijker

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:210

    Content type: Research article

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  15. IGF-1 is an essential neurotrophin produced peripherally and in the brain. Impairments in the brain IGF-1 concentrations might be responsible for some aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD) pathogenesis, w...

    Authors: Oleg A. Levada, Alexandra S. Troyan and Irina Y. Pinchuk

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:208

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Affective disorders, such as major depressive (MDD), bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II) disorders, are overlapped at a continuum, but their exact loci are not clear. The self-reports from patients with affective ...

    Authors: Fanjia Guo, Jingyi Cai, Yanli Jia, Jiawei Wang, Nenad Jakšić, Zsuzsanna Kövi, Marina Šagud and Wei Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:207

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Women in perimenopausal and postmenopausal period are at increased risk of depression and anxiety. Physiologic changes in menopause can change body’s appearance and function that may disturb body and then lead...

    Authors: Masoumeh Simbar, Soheila Nazarpour, Hamid Alavi Majd, Khadijeh Dodel Andarvar, Zahra Jafari Torkamani and Fatemeh Alsadat Rahnemaei

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:202

    Content type: Research article

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  18. College students are at an increased risk of psychiatric distress. So, identifying its important correlates using more reliable statistical models, instead of inefficient traditional variable selection methods...

    Authors: Mahya Arayeshgari, Leili Tapak, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Jalal Poorolajal and Ali Ghaleiha

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:198

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has been standardized in several populations and is widely used in clinical practice and health care. However, it has not been appropriately standardized in the Korea...

    Authors: Cheolmin Shin, Young-Hoon Ko, Hyonggin An, Ho-Kyoung Yoon and Changsu Han

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:194

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Depression is common in older people and is associated with underlying brain change increasing the risk of dementia. Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by those with lifetime depression, however whether ...

    Authors: Camilla M. Hoyos, Christopher Gordon, Zoe Terpening, Louisa Norrie, Simon J. G. Lewis, Ian B. Hickie and Sharon L. Naismith

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:192

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Mood swings (MS) are a widely discussed psychiatric ailment of youthful patients. However, there is a lack of research about MS in this population.

    Authors: Suleemas Angsukiattitavorn, Acharaporn Seeherunwong, Rungnapa Panitrat and Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:191

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Mental health symptoms, like depressive mood (DM) and post-traumatic stress (PTS), and pain interference (PI) with daily functioning often co-occur following traffic injury and their comorbidity can complicate...

    Authors: I. Pozzato, A. Craig, B. Gopinath, A. Kifley, Y. Tran, J. Jagnoor and I. D. Cameron

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:189

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) may be induced by atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) such as aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine, either as a single treatment or in combination with oth...

    Authors: Anna Maria Szota, Izabela Radajewska, Przemysław Grudzka and Aleksander Araszkiewicz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:179

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Patients with mental illnesses often have massive difficulties returning to work after inpatient treatment at a psychiatric clinic and are often at risk of losing their jobs. The psychosocial support for this ...

    Authors: Lina Riedl, Daniela Blank, Monika Kohl, Anne Lang, Victoria Kehl, Peter Brieger and Johannes Hamann

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:177

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Physical inactivity and mental health problems are both major public health concerns worldwide. Although several studies have demonstrated the health benefits of regular physical exercise, few epidemiological ...

    Authors: Michael Grasdalsmoen, Hege Randi Eriksen, Kari Jussie Lønning and Børge Sivertsen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:175

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Available evidence suggests that adjunctive treatment with immunomodulatory medications may be effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). A pilot trial of the tetracycline minocycline as ad...

    Authors: Muhammad Ishrat Husain, Clare Cullen, Madeha Umer, Andre F. Carvalho, Stefan Kloiber, Jeffrey H. Meyer, Abigail Ortiz, Yuliya Knyahnytska, M. Omair Husain, Justine Giddens, Breno S. Diniz, Wei Wang, Allan H. Young, Benoit H. Mulsant and Zafiris J. Daskalakis

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:173

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. Cancer patients are disproportionately affected by generalized anxiety and major depression. For many, current treatments for these conditions are ineffective. In this case report, we present a serendipitous c...

    Authors: Benjamin E. Jewett, Merry N. Miller, Libby A. Ligon, Zachary Carter, Ibrahim Mohammad and Gregory A. Ordway

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:171

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Perinatal depression is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Migrant women, particularly those living in low- and middle-income settings, represent a particularly vulnerable ...

    Authors: Gracia Fellmeth, Emma Plugge, Mina Fazel, May May Oo, Mupawjay Pimanpanarak, Yuwapha Phichitpadungtham, Kerry Wai, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Julie A. Simpson, François Nosten, Raymond Fitzpatrick and Rose McGready

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:168

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Attachment theory predicts that patients who are not securely attached may benefit less from psychological treatment. However, evidence on the predictive role of attachment in the effectiveness of treatment fo...

    Authors: Jacqueline G. L. A-Tjak, Nexhmedin Morina, Wouter J. Boendermaker, Maurice Topper and Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:155

    Content type: Research article

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  30. There is evidence of a high prevalence of depression and anxiety in university students. Therefore, college time is a key period where prevention of mental disorders through interventions that promote resilien...

    Authors: Araceli Palma-Gómez, Rocío Herrero, Rosa Baños, Azucena García-Palacios, Claudia Castañeiras, Gabriela Lidia Fernandez, Dario Martín Llull, Lorena Cudris Torres, Libia Alvis Barranco, Leonardo Cárdenas-Gómez and Cristina Botella

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:148

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders that are difficult to distinguish, as their diagnosis is based on behavioural observations and subjective sym...

    Authors: Sang Jin Rhee, Dohyun Han, Yunna Lee, Hyeyoung Kim, Junhee Lee, Kangeun Lee, Hyunsuk Shin, Hyeyoon Kim, Tae Young Lee, Minah Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Yong Min Ahn, Jun Soo Kwon and Kyooseob Ha

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:145

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Depression is frequently accompanied by other mental disorders and various somatic diseases; however, previous comorbidity studies often relied on self-reported data and have not simultaneously assessed the en...

    Authors: Annika Steffen, Julia Nübel, Frank Jacobi, Jörg Bätzing and Jakob Holstiege

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:142

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Both depression and cancer are economically burdensome. However, how depression affects the healthcare expenditures of elderly cancer patients from payers’ and patients’ perspectives is largely unknown. This s...

    Authors: Dian Gu, Robert O. Morgan, Ruosha Li, Ellerie S. Weber and Chan Shen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:131

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Clinical guidelines for depression in adults recommend the use of outcome measures and stepped care models in routine care. Such measures are based on symptom severity, but response to treatment is likely to a...

    Authors: M. Smith, B. Francq, A. McConnachie, K. Wetherall, A. Pelosi and J. Morrison

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:125

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Little is known regarding the association between adverse events (AEs) and psychiatric medications administered to pregnant women in clinical trials during the pre-marketing period. This study analyzes reports...

    Authors: Tatsuhiko Anzai, Kunihiko Takahashi, Michiko Watanabe, Mayumi Mochizuki and Atsuko Murashima

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Recent scientific studies have suggested that climbing/bouldering is effective in alleviating depression when the comparison group was a waitlist control group, even when physical activity and other therapeuti...

    Authors: Nina Karg, Lisa Dorscht, Johannes Kornhuber and Katharina Luttenberger

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:116

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Depression is one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease, and it has particularly negative consequences for elderly patients. Antidepressants are the most frequently used treatment. We present t...

    Authors: Katharina Gutsmiedl, Marc Krause, Irene Bighelli, Johannes Schneider-Thoma and Stefan Leucht

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:102

    Content type: Research article

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  38. An inverse association between total leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and depression has been previously documented in the scientific literature. Our objective was to prospectively assess the association ...

    Authors: Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, Francisca Lahortiga-Ramos, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González and Patricio Molero

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:98

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:132

  39. Depressive symptoms are common in individuals suffering from severe somatic conditions. There is a lack of interventions and evidence-based interventions aiming to reduce depressive symptoms in patients with s...

    Authors: Vladimir Carli, Danuta Wasserman, Gergö Hadlaczky, Nuhamin Gebrewold Petros, Sara Carletto, Luca Citi, Sergio Dinis, Claudio Gentili, Sergio Gonzalez-Martinez, Aldo De Leonibus, Björn Meyer, Luca Ostacoli, Manuel Ottaviano, Silvia Ouakinin, Rita Paradiso, Riccardo Poli…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:93

    Content type: Study protocol

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  40. Bipolar disorder if untreated, has severe consequences: severe role impairment, higher health care costs, mortality and morbidity. Although effective treatment is available, the delay in diagnosis might be as ...

    Authors: Ágnes Lublóy, Judit Lilla Keresztúri, Attila Németh and Péter Mihalicza

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Many studies have found that the hippocampus plays a very important role in major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus can be divided into three subfields: the cornu ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG) and ...

    Authors: Zi Yu Hao, Yuan Zhong, Zi Juan Ma, Hua Zhen Xu, Jing Ya Kong, Zhou Wu, Yun Wu, Jian Li, Xin Lu, Ning Zhang and Chun Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Although the individual and economic disease burden of depression is particularly high for long-term symptoms, little is known of the lifetime course of chronic depression. Most evidence derives from clinical ...

    Authors: Julia Nübel, Anne Guhn, Susanne Müllender, Hong Duyen Le, Caroline Cohrdes and Stephan Köhler

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is the most widely and frequently used scale to assess positive and negative affect. The PANAS has been validated in several languages, and it has shown excell...

    Authors: Amanda Díaz-García, Alberto González-Robles, Sonia Mor, Adriana Mira, Soledad Quero, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa María Baños and Cristina Botella

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Decisions about antidepressant use in pregnancy are complex. Little is known about how pregnancy-planning and already pregnant women making these decisions differ.

    Authors: Lucy C. Barker, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Donna E. Stewart, Sophie Grigoriadis, Kelly Metcalfe, Tim F. Oberlander, Carrie Schram, Valerie H. Taylor and Simone N. Vigod

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:54

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Depression is a prevalent and serious mood disorder and a major source of disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Uganda. Furthermore, evidence from Uganda and other countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa su...

    Authors: Amanda P. Miller, Michael Kintu and Susan M. Kiene

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have particularly high rates of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and are also more likely to receive prescription opioids for their pain...

    Authors: Ashli Owen-Smith, Christine Stewart, Musu M. Sesay, Sheryl M. Strasser, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Brian Ahmedani, Lisa R. Miller-Matero, Stephen C. Waring, Irina V. Haller, Beth E. Waitzfelder, Stacy A. Sterling, Cynthia I. Campbell, Rulin C. Hechter, John E. Zeber, Laurel A. Copeland, Jeffrey F. Scherrer…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:40

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with metabolic abnormalities and NNMT regulates energy metaboli...

    Authors: Qing Hu, Farong Liu, Luyin Yang, Zanxi Fang, Jue He, Wenqiang Wang and Pan You

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  48. African women face high rates of depression, particularly during pregnancy or postpartum or after a recent HIV diagnosis. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool has been quantitat...

    Authors: Jennifer Velloza, John Njoroge, Kenneth Ngure, Nicholas Thuo, Catherine Kiptinness, Richard Momanyi, Snaidah Ayub, Stephen Gakuo, Nelly Mugo, Jane Simoni and Renee Heffron

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most widely tested and empirically supported psychological treatments for depression. Beck and other scholars established the theoretical foundations of CBT amo...

    Authors: Saghar Chahar Mahali, Shadi Beshai, Justin R. Feeney and Sandeep Mishra

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:18

    Content type: Research article

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