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Mood disorders

Section edited by Florian Seemüller

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. Many studies have found that the hippocampus plays a very important role in major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus can be divided into three subfields: the cornu ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG) and ...

    Authors: Zi Yu Hao, Yuan Zhong, Zi Juan Ma, Hua Zhen Xu, Jing Ya Kong, Zhou Wu, Yun Wu, Jian Li, Xin Lu, Ning Zhang and Chun Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Although the individual and economic disease burden of depression is particularly high for long-term symptoms, little is known of the lifetime course of chronic depression. Most evidence derives from clinical ...

    Authors: Julia Nübel, Anne Guhn, Susanne Müllender, Hong Duyen Le, Caroline Cohrdes and Stephan Köhler

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is the most widely and frequently used scale to assess positive and negative affect. The PANAS has been validated in several languages, and it has shown excell...

    Authors: Amanda Díaz-García, Alberto González-Robles, Sonia Mor, Adriana Mira, Soledad Quero, Azucena García-Palacios, Rosa María Baños and Cristina Botella

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Decisions about antidepressant use in pregnancy are complex. Little is known about how pregnancy-planning and already pregnant women making these decisions differ.

    Authors: Lucy C. Barker, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Neesha Hussain-Shamsy, Donna E. Stewart, Sophie Grigoriadis, Kelly Metcalfe, Tim F. Oberlander, Carrie Schram, Valerie H. Taylor and Simone N. Vigod

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:54

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Depression is a prevalent and serious mood disorder and a major source of disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Uganda. Furthermore, evidence from Uganda and other countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa su...

    Authors: Amanda P. Miller, Michael Kintu and Susan M. Kiene

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:45

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have particularly high rates of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and are also more likely to receive prescription opioids for their pain...

    Authors: Ashli Owen-Smith, Christine Stewart, Musu M. Sesay, Sheryl M. Strasser, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Brian Ahmedani, Lisa R. Miller-Matero, Stephen C. Waring, Irina V. Haller, Beth E. Waitzfelder, Stacy A. Sterling, Cynthia I. Campbell, Rulin C. Hechter, John E. Zeber, Laurel A. Copeland, Jeffrey F. Scherrer…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:40

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with metabolic abnormalities and NNMT regulates energy metaboli...

    Authors: Qing Hu, Farong Liu, Luyin Yang, Zanxi Fang, Jue He, Wenqiang Wang and Pan You

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  8. African women face high rates of depression, particularly during pregnancy or postpartum or after a recent HIV diagnosis. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool has been quantitat...

    Authors: Jennifer Velloza, John Njoroge, Kenneth Ngure, Nicholas Thuo, Catherine Kiptinness, Richard Momanyi, Snaidah Ayub, Stephen Gakuo, Nelly Mugo, Jane Simoni and Renee Heffron

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:31

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most widely tested and empirically supported psychological treatments for depression. Beck and other scholars established the theoretical foundations of CBT amo...

    Authors: Saghar Chahar Mahali, Shadi Beshai, Justin R. Feeney and Sandeep Mishra

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:18

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Understanding how patients are treated in the real-world is vital to identifying potential gaps in care. We describe the current pharmacologic treatment patterns for the treatment of depression.

    Authors: David M. Kern, M. Soledad Cepeda, Frank Defalco and Mila Etropolski

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:4

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Clinically significant depressive symptoms are prevalent in people attending low vision clinics and often go undetected. The Low Vision Service Wales (LVSW) plans to introduce depression screening and manageme...

    Authors: Claire Nollett, Rebecca Bartlett, Ryan Man, Timothy Pickles, Barbara Ryan and Jennifer H. Acton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:426

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Depressive and anxiety disorders have shown to be associated to premature or advanced biological aging and consequently to adversely impact somatic health. Treatments with antidepressant medication or running ...

    Authors: Bianca A. Lever-van Milligen, Josine E. Verhoeven, Lianne Schmaal, Laura S. van Velzen, Dóra Révész, Catherine N. Black, Laura K. M. Han, Melany Horsfall, Neeltje M. Batelaan, Anton J. L. M. van Balkom, Digna J. F. van Schaik, Patricia van Oppen and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:425

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Late-life depression (LLD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in old age. It is associated with various adverse outcomes and frequent use of health care services thereby remaining a serious public h...

    Authors: Forugh S. Dafsari, Bettina Bewernick, Matthias Biewer, Hildegard Christ, Katharina Domschke, Lutz Froelich, Martin Hellmich, Melanie Luppa, Oliver Peters, Alfredo Ramirez, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Elisabeth Schramm, Magnus-Sebastian Vry, Michael Wagner, Martin Hautzinger and Frank Jessen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:423

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Previous research suggests that the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) is less sensitive in detecting differences between active treatment and placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD) than i...

    Authors: Boadie W. Dunlop, Sagar V. Parikh, Anthony J. Rothschild, Michael E. Thase, Charles DeBattista, Charles R. Conway, Brent P. Forester, Francis M. Mondimore, Richard C. Shelton, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Logan, Paul Traxler, James Li, Holly Johnson and John F. Greden

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:420

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Lower socioeconomic status is often thought to be associated with an elevated risk of postpartum depression; however, this relationship exhibits noticeable heterogeneity between studies. The present study exam...

    Authors: Kenta Matsumura, Kei Hamazaki, Akiko Tsuchida, Haruka Kasamatsu and Hidekuni Inadera

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:419

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Visual deficits have been reported in abundance by recent studies on major depressive disorder. Pattern glare manifests as visual distortions, such as the symptoms of headache, glare, eyestrain, illusions of s...

    Authors: Xiongwei Qi, Huanhuan Fan, Xiao Yang, Yayun Chen, Wei Deng, Wanjun Guo, Qiang Wang, Eric Chen, Tao Li and Xiaohong Ma

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:415

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric disorder with a highly recurrent character, making prevention of relapse an important clinical goal. Preventive Cognitive Therapy (PCT) has been proven effectiv...

    Authors: Rozemarijn S. van Kleef, Claudi L. H. Bockting, Evelien van Valen, André Aleman, Jan-Bernard C. Marsman and Marie-José van Tol

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:409

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Bipolar disorder has been associated with several personality traits, cognitive styles and affective temperaments. Women who have bipolar disorder are at increased risk of experiencing postpartum psychosis, ho...

    Authors: A. Perry, K. Gordon-Smith, I. Webb, E. Fone, A. Di Florio, N. Craddock, I. Jones and L. Jones

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:395

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Although depression has a high rate of recurrence, no prior studies have established a method that could identify the warning signs of its recurrence.

    Authors: Narimasa Kumagai, Aran Tajika, Akio Hasegawa, Nao Kawanishi, Masaru Horikoshi, Shinji Shimodera, Ken’ichi Kurata, Bun Chino and Toshi A. Furukawa

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:391

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In China, young migrants are at elevated risk of mental health problems, such as depression. The influence of self-esteem on depression is well acknowledged. We examined correlates of depression and their medi...

    Authors: Qiuming Shen, Yue Shi, Shuxian Zhang, Lhakpa Tsamlag, Huwen Wang, Ruijie Chang, Zihe Peng, Ying Wang, Meili Shang and Yong Cai

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:390

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Due to long waiting periods for outpatient psychotherapy and the high resource requirements of inpatient treatment, there is a need for alternative treatment programs for patients with depressive disorders. Th...

    Authors: Martin Driessen, Philipp Schulz, Silvia Jander, Hedda Ribbert, Stefanie Gerhards, Frank Neuner and Steffi Koch-Stoecker

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:380

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Conclusions regarding the association between antithyroid antibodies or thyroid dysfunction and rapid cycling bipolar disorder (RCBD) have been conflicting. Previous studies suggest that the impact of antithyr...

    Authors: Zhaoyu Gan, Xiuhua Wu, Zhongcheng Chen, Yingtao Liao, Yingdong Wu, Zimeng He, Zhihua Yang and Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:378

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Clinical depression is characterized by high levels of negative affect (NA) and attenuated positive affect (PA). Psychological and pharmacological treatments have been shown to reduce NA and to enhance PA in d...

    Authors: Thomas Suslow, Charlott Maria Bodenschatz, Anette Kersting, Markus Quirin and Vivien Günther

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:376

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There is an urgent need to develop additional treatment strategies for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The rapid but short-lived antidepressant effects of intravenous (IV) ketamine as a rac...

    Authors: Sanne Y. Smith-Apeldoorn, Jolien K. E. Veraart, Jeanine Kamphuis, Antoinette D. I. van Asselt, Daan J. Touw, Marije aan het Rot and Robert A. Schoevers

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:375

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:9

  25. Only a minority of dialysis patients with depressive symptoms are diagnosed and receive treatment. Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in this population and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes....

    Authors: Els Nadort, Robbert W. Schouten, Friedo W. Dekker, Adriaan Honig, Patricia van Oppen and Carl E. H. Siegert

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:372

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Involuntary subordination is a mechanism that switches off fighting behaviors when a losing organism is unable to continue in a struggle. The study aim was to investigate the association between involuntary su...

    Authors: Shuxian Zhang, Suping Wang, Zezhou Wang, Ying Wang, Xueqin Jiang, Gang Xu and Yong Cai

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:369

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Knowledge construction is a form of communication in which people can work individually or collaboratively. Peer support services have been adopted by the public psychiatric and social welfare service as a reg...

    Authors: Samson Tse, Winnie W. Y. Yuen, Greg Murray, Larry Davidson, Queenie Lai and Alice Kan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:368

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Stigma against mental illness cuts across all age, religion, ethnic origin or socio-economic status. Similarly, self-stigma among psychiatric patients is also prevalent worldwide. The consequences of self-stig...

    Authors: Shanta Maharjan and Bimala Panthee

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:347

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Although the cross-sectional association between mental disorders and suicide ideation is well studied, less is known about the prospective association. In this paper, we estimated among those without 12-month...

    Authors: Derek de Beurs, Margreet ten Have, Pim Cuijpers and Ron de Graaf

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:345

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective treatment for patients with depression, ECT can achieve remarkable antidepressant effects in the initial 3–4 sessions, but significant side effec...

    Authors: Han Rong, Shu-xian Xu, Jing Zeng, Ying-jia Yang, Jie Zhao, Wen-tao Lai, Li-chang Chen, Wen-feng Deng, Xiangyang Zhang, Ying-li Zhang, Min-zhi Li, Li Xiao and Xin-hui Xie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:344

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Little is known about depression in middle-aged and older Canadians and how it is affected by health determinants, particularly immigrant status. This study examined depression and socio-economic, health, immi...

    Authors: Karen M. Davison, Yu Lung, Shen (Lamson) Lin, Hongmei Tong, Karen M. Kobayashi and Esme Fuller-Thomson

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:329

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Published research on depression among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Africa is increasing, but data from Kenya remains scarce. This cross-sectional study measured the prevalence and correlates of de...

    Authors: Moses K. Nyongesa, Paul Mwangi, Stanley W. Wanjala, Agnes M. Mutua, Charles R. J. C. Newton and Amina Abubakar

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:333

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Perinatal depression is a common problem that affects about 18% of women worldwide, though the heterogeneity between countries is great. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of perinatal depres...

    Authors: Limor Adler, Judith Tsamir, Rachel Katz, Gideon Koren and Ilan Yehoshua

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:331

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In a recent issue of the BMC Psychiatry, the evidence of effectiveness of treatments for psychiatric conditions in end-stage cancer patients was reviewed (Johnson, 2018). The review was comprehensive, and incl...

    Authors: Rafael Guimarães dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso and Jaime E. C. Hallak

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:321

    Content type: Commentary

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  35. People with bipolar disorder are highly vulnerable to risky sexual behaviors (RSBs). The magnitude of RSBs among bipolar disorders was not studied in our population. The present study aimed to explore the prev...

    Authors: Chalachew Shambel Obo, Lamesa Melese Sori, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz and Bizuneh Tesfaye Molla

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:313

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness, however its physiopathology is unclear. The role of folate in the physiopathology of BD is controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-anal...

    Authors: Yung-Chi Hsieh, Li-Shiu Chou, Ching-Hua Lin, Hung-Chi Wu, Dian-Jeng Li and Ping-Tao Tseng

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:305

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Depressive symptoms are quite prevalent in Primary Care (PC) settings. The treatment as usual (TAU) in PC is pharmacotherapy, despite the high relapse rates it produces. Many patients would prefer psychotherap...

    Authors: Alba Lopez-Montoyo, Soledad Quero, Jesus Montero-Marin, Alberto Barcelo-Soler, Maria Beltran, Daniel Campos and Javier Garcia-Campayo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:301

    Content type: Study protocol

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  38. Research can inform culturally-appropriate care to strengthen social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter, the term ‘Indigenous Peoples’ is respectfully used an...

    Authors: Sara Farnbach, Graham Gee, Anne-Marie Eades, John Robert Evans, Jamie Fernando, Belinda Hammond, Matty Simms, Karrina DeMasi and Maree L. Hackett

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:294

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Women with bipolar disorder (BD) have a high risk of illness relapse postpartum. The risk coincides with the period when mother-infant interactions are evolving. We compared mother-infant interactions in dyads...

    Authors: Teija M. S. Anke, Kari Slinning, Vibeke Moe, Cathrine Brunborg, Torill S. Siqveland and Dag Vegard Skjelstad

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:292

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a brief tool to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to validate and calibrate the PHQ-9 to determine appropriate cut-off poin...

    Authors: María Urtasun, Federico Manuel Daray, Germán Leandro Teti, Fernando Coppolillo, Gabriela Herlax, Guillermo Saba, Adolfo Rubinstein, Ricardo Araya and Vilma Irazola

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:291

    Content type: Research article

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  41. While postpartum depression is a well-researched disorder in mothers, there is growing evidence indicating that some fathers also develop depressive symptoms (paternal postpartum depression, PPD). A recent met...

    Authors: Julia Albicker, Lars P. Hölzel, Jürgen Bengel, Katharina Domschke, Levente Kriston, Miriam A. Schiele and Fabian Frank

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:289

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent and disabling forms of mental illness in the general population. One public health strategy that may reduce the disease burden is early identification and...

    Authors: JianLi Wang, Glenda MacQueen, Scott Patten, Douglas Manuel, Bonnie Lashewicz and Norbert Schmitz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:285

    Content type: Study protocol

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  43. Among patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) and comorbid depression, women experience a higher burden compared to men. Little is known on the characteristics that differentiate men and women wit...

    Authors: Hala Allabadi, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Abdulsalam Alkaiyat, Saleem Haj-Yahia, Christian Schindler, Marek Kwiatkowski and Elisabeth Zemp

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:284

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a measurement method for the sensory gating process, which helps the brain adapt to complex environments. PPI may be reduced in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). This study inve...

    Authors: Zhen Mao, Qijing Bo, Weidi Li, Zhimin Wang, Xin Ma and Chuanyue Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:282

    Content type: Research article

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  45. People in green professions are exposed to a variety of risk factors, which could possibly enhance the development of depression. Amongst possible prevention approaches, internet- and mobile-based intervention...

    Authors: Lina Braun, Ingrid Titzler, David Daniel Ebert, Claudia Buntrock, Yannik Terhorst, Johanna Freund, Janika Thielecke and Harald Baumeister

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:278

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Although massive studies have explored the risk factors of suicidal ideation (SI), the prevalence of SI and its associated factors in the hypertensive individuals are largely unknown. This study aims to invest...

    Authors: Dandan Ge, Xinyi Zhang, Xiaolei Guo, Jie Chu, Long Sun and Chengchao Zhou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:266

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Several international guidelines for the acute treatment of moderate to severe unipolar depression recommend a first-line treatment with antidepressants (AD). This is based on the assumption that AD obviously ...

    Authors: Martin Plöderl and Michael P. Hengartner

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2019 19:265

    Content type: Debate

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