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Mood disorders

Section edited by Florian Seemüller

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. The pre-melancholic model described by Tellenbach may provide a common model for understanding the psychological implications of the lockdown. In this case report, we describe a rare catatonic status as a psyc...

    Authors: Giuseppe Sarli, Lorenzo Polidori, David Lester and Maurizio Pompili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:558

    Content type: Case report

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  2. Several evidence-based practice guidelines have been developed to better treat bipolar disorder. However, the articles cited in these guidelines were not sufficiently based on real-world clinical practice.

    Authors: Keita Tokumitsu, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Naoto Adachi, Yukihisa Kubota, Yoichiro Watanabe, Kazuhira Miki, Takaharu Azekawa, Koji Edagawa, Eiichi Katsumoto, Seiji Hongo, Eiichiro Goto, Hitoshi Ueda, Masaki Kato, Reiji Yoshimura, Atsuo Nakagawa, Toshiaki Kikuchi…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:555

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To investigate the risk of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in patients with depression by examining their clinical features, early prescription patterns, and early and lifetime comorbidities.

    Authors: Shiau-Shian Huang, Hsi-Han Chen, Jui Wang, Wei J. Chen, Hsi-Chung Chen and Po-Hsiu Kuo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:541

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Little is known about the burden of common mental disorders in Russia despite high levels of suicide and alcohol-related mortality. Here we investigated levels of symptoms, self-reports of ever having received...

    Authors: Sarah Cook, Alexander V. Kudryavtsev, Natalia Bobrova, Lyudmila Saburova, Diana Denisova, Sofia Malyutina, Glyn Lewis and David A. Leon

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:537

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Limitations of current therapy of depression highlight the need for an immediately available, easily implementable add-on treatment option with high acceptance from patients. Hyperthermic baths (HTB) are a for...

    Authors: Johannes Naumann, Iris Kruza, Luisa Denkel, Gunver Kienle and Roman Huber

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:536

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Anxiety and depression are in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in women, strongest for the urgency component of UI. The role of psychotropic drugs in this...

    Authors: Gunhild Felde, Anders Engeland and Steinar Hunskaar

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:521

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Pharmacogenetic testing (PGx) has the potential to improve the quality of psychiatric prescribing by considering patients’ genetic profile. However, there is limited scientific evidence supporting its efficacy...

    Authors: Bonnie M. Vest, Laura O. Wray, Laura A. Brady, Michael E. Thase, Gregory P. Beehler, Sara R. Chapman, Leland E. Hull and David W. Oslin

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:518

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Major depressive disorder represents (MDD) a major cause of disability and disease burden. Beside antidepressant medication, psychotherapy is a key approach of treatment. Schema therapy has been shown to be ef...

    Authors: Johannes Kopf-Beck, Petra Zimmermann, Samy Egli, Martin Rein, Nils Kappelmann, Julia Fietz, Jeanette Tamm, Katharina Rek, Susanne Lucae, Anna-Katharine Brem, Philipp Sämann, Leonhard Schilbach and Martin E. Keck

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:506

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. This study aimed to screen cardiovascular patients for depressive symptoms at a tertiary centre in Trinidad and Tobago; and to determine any significant associations amongst patients’ demographics, comorbiditi...

    Authors: Naveen Seecheran, Cathy-Lee Jagdeo, Rajeev Seecheran, Valmiki Seecheran, Sangeeta Persad, Lakshmipatty Peram, Matthew Evans, Justine Edwards, Sheri Thackoorcharan, Britney Davis, Shari Davis, Barbrianna Dawkins, Anisha Dayaram, Michelle De Freitas, Tsarina Deonarinesingh, Jiovanna Dhanai…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:498

    Content type: Research article

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  10. A number of studies have explored the association between depression and ghrelin, leptin, and cortisol; further, postprandial C-peptide levels have a therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Howe...

    Authors: Yu Ming Sang, Li Jun Wang, Hong Xian Mao, Xue Yong Lou, Yi Jun Zhu and Yue Hua Zhu

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:490

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common mood disorder that is often goes misdiagnosed or undiagnosed. Recently, machine learning techniques have been combined with neuroimaging methods to aid in the diagnosis of BP...

    Authors: Hao Li, Liqian Cui, Liping Cao, Yizhi Zhang, Yueheng Liu, Wenhao Deng and Wenjin Zhou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:488

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Depression affects approximately 7.1% of the United States population every year and has an annual economic burden of over $210 billion dollars. Several recent studies have sought to investigate the pathophysi...

    Authors: Avery D. Franzen, Tukiet T. Lam, Kenneth R. Williams, Angus C. Nairn, Ronald S. Duman, Monica Sathyanesan, Vikas Kumar, Linda L. Carpenter and Samuel S. Newton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:481

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is one of the most commonly used instruments to assess mental disorders. However, research on its cross-cultural measurement invariance is not yet sufficient. This study ...

    Authors: Yan Zhou, Jing Xu and Winfried Rief

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:480

    Content type: Research article

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  14. To assess the reliability and validity of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to assess the feasibility of its use in psychiatric hospitals in China.

    Authors: Yue Sun, Zhaoyan Fu, Qijing Bo, Zhen Mao, Xin Ma and Chuanyue Wang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:474

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Depressive illness is associated with significant adverse consequences for patients and their families, and for society. Clinical challenges are encountered in the management of patients suffering from depress...

    Authors: Allan H. Young, Mario F. Juruena, Renske De Zwaef and Koen Demyttenaere

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:471

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Major depression (MDD) and social anxiety (SAD) disorders are debilitating psychiatric conditions characterized by disturbed interpersonal relationships. Despite these impairments in social relationships, rese...

    Authors: Gheysar Maleki, Abbas Zabihzadeh, Mara J. Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics and Fatemeh Mohammadnejad

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:463

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Major depression is believed to affect treatment adherence and overall quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Comorbid major depression contributes to a two-fold higher risk of mortality...

    Authors: Biksegn Asrat, Crick Lund, Fentie Ambaw, Emily Claire Garman and Marguerite Schneider

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:462

    Content type: Research article

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  18. With deteriorating eyesight, people often become dependent on others for many aspects of their daily lives. As a result, they feel less ‘in control’ and experience lower self-esteem. Lower sense of mastery and...

    Authors: I. M. Maaswinkel, H. P. A. van der Aa, G. H. M. B. van Rens, A. T. F. Beekman, J. W. R. Twisk and R. M. A. van Nispen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:461

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Promoting well-being and preventing poor mental health in young people is a major global priority. Building emotional competence (EC) skills via a mobile app may be an effective, scalable and acceptable way to...

    Authors: A. Newbold, F. C. Warren, R. S. Taylor, C. Hulme, S. Burnett, B. Aas, C. Botella, F. Burkhardt, T. Ehring, J. R. J. Fontaine, M. Frost, A. Garcia-Palacios, E. Greimel, C. Hoessle, A. Hovasapian, VEI Huyghe…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:458

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Many patients with bipolar II disorder (BPII) prefer to be more informed and involved in their treatment decision-making than they currently are. Limited knowledge and involvement in one’s treatment is also li...

    Authors: Alana Fisher, Rachael Keast, Daniel Costa, Louise Sharpe, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Josephine Anderson and Ilona Juraskova

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:447

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Major depressive episode (MDE) is worldwide one of the most prevalent and disabling mental health conditions. In cases of persistent non-response to treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and eff...

    Authors: Nele Van de Velde, Mitchel Kappen, Ernst H. W. Koster, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Hannelore Tandt, Pieter Verslype, Chris Baeken, Rudi De Raedt, Gilbert Lemmens and Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:453

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Many university students experience depression and anxiety, both of which have been shown to affect cognitive function. However, the impact of these emotional difficulties on academic performance is unclear. T...

    Authors: Suheir Awadalla, E. Bethan Davies and Cris Glazebrook

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:448

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Although depression is highly prevalent among cancer patients, it is often underdiagnosed and poorly managed particularly in developing nations. These shortcomings can have substantial adverse effects not only...

    Authors: Mikyas Degefa, Benyam Dubale, Fikirte Bayouh, Biniyam Ayele and Yared Zewde

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:446

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Depression has a negative impact on both mental and physical health and is mainly associated with suboptimal HIV tr...

    Authors: Charlotte Bernard, Hélène Font, Zélica Diallo, Richard Ahonon, Judicaël Malick Tine, Franklin N’guessan Abouo, Aristophane Tanon, Eugène Messou, Moussa Seydi, François Dabis and Nathalie de Rekeneire

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:442

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The issue of unblinded outcome-assessors and patients has repeatedly been stressed as a flaw in allegedly double-blind antidepressant trials. Unblinding bias can for example result from a drug‘s marked side ef...

    Authors: Lisa Holper and Michael P. Hengartner

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:437

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Studies on anxiety and depression in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) patients after treatment via endovascular intervention are rare and controversial. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anxiety and ...

    Authors: Xiao-Dong Zhai, Jia-Xing Yu, Yong-Jie Ma, Si-Shi Xiang, Gui-Lin Li, Chuan He, Peng Hu and Hong-Qi Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:430

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Farmers are a vulnerable population for developing depression or other mental health disorders due to a variety of risk factors in their work context. Beyond face-to-face resources, preventive internet- and te...

    Authors: Johanna Freund, Ingrid Titzler, Janika Thielecke, Lina Braun, Harald Baumeister, Matthias Berking and David Daniel Ebert

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:424

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Undetected depression is common in people with low vision and depression screening has been recommended. However, depression screening is a complex procedure for which low vision practitioners need training. T...

    Authors: Claire Nollett, Rebecca Bartlett, Ryan Man, Timothy Pickles, Barbara Ryan and Jennifer H. Acton

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:419

    Content type: Research article

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  29. This study aimed to investigate a one-year course of persistent/remitted depressive symptoms and associated demographic and psychosocial factors that predict persistent/remitted depressive symptoms in Chinese ...

    Authors: Xinli Chi, Benjamin Becker, Qian Yu, Md Mahhub Hossain, Jingyaun Lin, Albert Yeung, Radhika Seiler-Ramadas, Igor Grabovac, He Bu, Fei Xie and Liye Zou

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:406

    Content type: Research article

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  30. A complex interaction between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) is crucial in the stress system balance; several studies have reported increased cortisol levels during chronic stress and a ...

    Authors: Philippe Leff-Gelman, Mónica Flores-Ramos, Ariela Edith Ávila Carrasco, Margarita López Martínez, María Fernanda Sarabia Takashima, Fausto Manuel Cruz Coronel, Blanca Farfán Labonne, José Antonio Zorrilla Dosal, Paola Barriguete Chávez-Peón, Saul Garza Morales and Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:393

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The current analysis utilized data collected via an online patient community platform, PatientsLikeMe (PLM) to compare patient-reported experiences in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with suicida...

    Authors: Stephane Borentain, Abigail I. Nash, Rachna Dayal and Allitia DiBernardo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:384

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in Mozambique; however, few patients with depression are identified in primary care. To our knowledge, there are no validated tools for depression screenin...

    Authors: Vasco F. J. Cumbe, Alberto Muanido, Maria Nélia Manaca, Hélder Fumo, Pedro Chiruca, Leecreesha Hicks, Jair de Jesus Mari and Bradley H. Wagenaar

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:382

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women is up to 50% higher as compared to men. However, little is known about discrepancies in health care utilization between depressed female and male pati...

    Authors: Gernot Fugger, Thomas Waldhör, Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Nathalie Pruckner, Daniel König, Andrea Gmeiner, Sandra Vyssoki, Benjamin Vyssoki and Matthäus Fellinger

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:375

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Depression is highly prevalent among Haemodialysis (HD) patients and is known to results in a series of adverse outcomes and poor quality of life (QoL). Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been sh...

    Authors: Chen Ling, Debra Evans, Yunfang Zhang, Jianying Luo, Yanping Hu, Yuxia Ouyang, Jiamin Tang and Ziqiao Kuang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:369

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The relative benefits and risks of long-term maintenance treatment with antipsychotics have not been well studied in patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. For example, while antipsychot...

    Authors: Stanley N. Caroff, Fan Mu, Rajeev Ayyagari, Traci Schilling, Victor Abler and Benjamin Carroll

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:365

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Oral antipsychotic (AP) medications are frequently prescribed to people with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). A cross-sectional online survey examined the experiences of people living with BD-I with a history of rec...

    Authors: Leona Bessonova, Dawn I. Velligan, Peter J. Weiden, Amy K. O’Sullivan, Aaron Yarlas, Martha Bayliss, Nishtha Baranwal, Kaitlin Rychlec, Julia Carpenter-Conlin, Michael J. Doane and Martha Sajatovic

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:354

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Sarcopenia is a skeletal muscle disorder. Recent studies have shown an association between muscle health and suicide. However, there have been no previous studies on the relationship between suicide risk sever...

    Authors: Xin-Xin Fan, Jing Yuan, Yu-Jun Wei, Fang Zhou, Li Xu, Yan Zhang, Jun-Yu Meng, Xiao-Long Jin and Jian-Zhong Yang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:345

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Most people who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of depression in China do not receive treatment. Family and friends can play a role in recognising the signs of depression and encouraging the person to seek trea...

    Authors: Shurong Lu, Wenjing Li, Brian Oldenburg, Yan Wang, Anthony F. Jorm, Yanling He and Nicola J. Reavley

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:336

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The alterations of biological markers are thought to be effective tools to understand the pathophysiology and management of major depressive disorder (MDD). A lot of researches has implied many markers for dep...

    Authors: Md. Rabiul Islam, Samia Ali, James Regun Karmoker, Mohammad Fahim Kadir, Maizbha Uddin Ahmed, Zabun Nahar, Sardar Mohammad Ashraful Islam, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Abul Hasnat and Md. Saiful Islam

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:333

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Literature suggests that most mental disorders have their onset in childhood and adolescence, but go undiagnosed until adulthood. Shorter versions of the screening tools such as the Patient Health Questionnair...

    Authors: Jacqueline Materu, Evodius Kuringe, Daniel Nyato, Anthony Galishi, Amasha Mwanamsangu, Maligo Katebalila, Amani Shao, John Changalucha, Soori Nnko and Mwita Wambura

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:321

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Depression is the greatest contributor to worldwide disability. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of antidepressant and psychotherapy treatment adherence on future work leaves for patie...

    Authors: Fraser W. Gaspar, Kerri Wizner, Joshua Morrison and Carolyn S. Dewa

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:320

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Antidepressants-induced movement disorders are rare and imperfectly known adverse drug reactions. The risk may differ between different antidepressants and antidepressants’ classes. The objective of this study...

    Authors: Alexis Revet, François Montastruc, Anne Roussin, Jean-Philippe Raynaud, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre and Thi Thu Ha Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:308

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The Gut-Brain-Axis is a bidirectional signaling pathway between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. The hundreds of trillions of microorganisms populating the gastrointestinal tract are thought to m...

    Authors: Arthi Chinna Meyyappan, Evan Forth, Caroline J. K. Wallace and Roumen Milev

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:299

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Medical students and residents were found to have suffered from depression, anxiety, and burnout in various studies. However, these entities have not been adequately explored in the context of Nepal. We propos...

    Authors: Nishan Babu Pokhrel, Ramesh Khadayat and Pratikchya Tulachan

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:298

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The lack of locally validated screening instruments contributes to poor detection of depression in primary care. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a brief and freely available screening tool which ...

    Authors: Keneilwe Molebatsi, Keneilwe Motlhatlhedi and Grace Nduku Wambua

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:295

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Depression affects about 30% of stroke survivors within 5 years. Timely diagnosis and management of post-stroke depression facilitate motor recovery and improve independence. The original version of the Patien...

    Authors: Piyapat Dajpratham, Panate Pukrittayakamee, Wanlop Atsariyasing, Kamonporn Wannarit, Jariya Boonhong and Krit Pongpirul

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:291

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The burden of depression in prisoners is increasing and factors such as co-existence of medical illness, lack of social support and longer duration of sentences are contributing to it. However, no pooled evide...

    Authors: Mogesie Necho, Asmare Belete, Mekonnen Tsehay and Yosef Zenebe

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2020 20:281

    Content type: Research article

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