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Mood disorders

Section edited by Florian Seemüller

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. Systematic screening for depression in high-risk patients is recommended but remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of such screening in everyday clinical practice on depr...

    Authors: Irene Romera, Ángel L Montejo, Enric Aragonés, José Ángel Arbesú, Celso Iglesias-García, Silvia López, José Antonio Lozano, Sireesha Pamulapati, Belen Yruretagoyena and Inmaculada Gilaberte

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:83

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Evidence suggests that neurotropic infectious agents might be involved in bipolar disorder. So far, few have been written for the association between parasitic infection and bipolar disorder. Filariasis is a p...

    Authors: Nora Hamdani, Raphaël Doukhan, Aline Picard, Ryad Tamouza and Marion Leboyer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:81

    Content type: Case report

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  3. One of the major issues in clinical practice is the accurate differential diagnosis between mixed states and depression, often leading to inappropriate prescriptions of antidepressants in mixed states, and as ...

    Authors: Chantal Henry, Amandine Luquiens, Christophe Lançon, Hélène Sapin, Marcel Zins-Ritter, Stephanie Gerard, Elena Perrin, Bruno Falissard and Michael Lukasiewicz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:79

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Circadian theories for major depressive disorder have suggested that the rhythm of the circadian pacemaker is misaligned. Stable phase relationships between internal rhythms, such as temperature and rest/activ...

    Authors: Cláudia Ávila Moraes, Trinitat Cambras, Antoni Diez-Noguera, Regina Schimitt, Giovana Dantas, Rosa Levandovski and Maria Paz Hidalgo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:77

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The objective of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the effect of length of sunlight exposure on interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects.

    Authors: Rosa Levandovski, Bianca Pfaffenseller, Alicia Carissimi, Clarissa S Gama and Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:75

    Content type: Research article

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  6. White matter abnormalities can cause network dysfunction that underlies major depressive disorder (MDD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to examine the neural connectivity and integrity of the white mat...

    Authors: Hong-jun Peng, Hui-rong Zheng, Yu-ping Ning, Yan Zhang, Bao-ci Shan, Li Zhang, Hai-chen Yang, Jun Liu, Ze-xuan Li, Jian-song Zhou, Zhi-jun Zhang and Ling-jiang Li

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:72

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Treatment of patients with acute mania remains a considerable medical challenge since onset of action of antimanic medication is delayed for several days. Psychostimulants could have an earlier onset of action...

    Authors: Michael Kluge, Ulrich Hegerl, Christian Sander, Jens Dietzel, Roland Mergl, Istvan Bitter, Koen Demyttenaere, Ricardo Gusmão, Ana Gonzalez-Pinto, Victor Perez-Sola, Eduard Vieta, Georg Juckel, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael Bauer, Pascal Sienaert, Sónia Quintão…

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:71

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health service...

    Authors: Jesús Montero-Marín, José Miguel Carrasco, Miquel Roca, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Margalida Gili, Fermin Mayoral, Juan V Luciano, Yolanda Lopez-del-Hoyo, Barbara Olivan, Francisco Collazo, Ricardo Araya, Rosa Baños, Cristina Botella and Javier García-Campayo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:64

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. There is a negative association between the use of antipsychotics and cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, which may be mediated by altered dopamine signaling in selected brain areas, and moderation ther...

    Authors: Baer Arts, Claudia JP Simons, Marjan Drukker and Jim van Os

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:63

    Content type: Research article

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  10. With the exception of bereavement, the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in the DSM-IV does not take into account the context in which symptoms occur. Recent criticism has maintained that common sense sug...

    Authors: Mauro Giovanni Carta, Matthias C Angermeyer, Herbert Matschinger, Anita Holzinger, Francesca Floris and Maria Francesca Moro

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:57

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Anxiety comorbidity is common in bipolar disorder and is associated with worse treatment outcomes, greater risk of self harm, suicide and substance misuse. To date however there have been no psychological inte...

    Authors: Steven Jones, Elly McGrath, Kay Hampshire, Rebecca Owen, Lisa Riste, Chris Roberts, Linda Davies and Debbie Mayes

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:54

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. The degrees to which residual symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) adversely affect patient functioning is not known. This post-hoc analysis explored the association between different residual symptoms ...

    Authors: Irene Romera, Víctor Pérez, Antonio Ciudad, Luis Caballero, Miguel Roca, Pepa Polavieja and Inmaculada Gilaberte

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:51

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This paper reports the results of a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the delivery modality (mobile phone/tablet or fixed computer) of a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for the treatment o...

    Authors: Sarah Watts, Anna Mackenzie, Cherian Thomas, Al Griskaitis, Louise Mewton, Alishia Williams and Gavin Andrews

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:49

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Despite the overall high degree of response to pharmacotherapy, consensus is lacking on how to judge clinical response or define optimal treatment/remission when treating adults with attention-deficit/hyperact...

    Authors: Greg W Mattingly, Richard H Weisler, Joel Young, Ben Adeyi, Bryan Dirks, Thomas Babcock, Robert Lasser, Brian Scheckner and David W Goodman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:39

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Psychotic depression (PD) is a severe disabling disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Electroconvulsive therapy and pharmacotherapy are each efficacious in the treatment of PD. Expert guidelines ...

    Authors: Alastair J Flint, Barnett S Meyers, Anthony J Rothschild, Ellen M Whyte, Benoit H Mulsant, Matthew V Rudorfer and Patricia Marino

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Few trials have evaluated the effectiveness of psychological treatment in improving depression by the end of pregnancy. This is the first pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of individual cognitive behavio...

    Authors: Alison Burns, Heather O’Mahen, Helen Baxter, Kristina Bennert, Nicola Wiles, Paul Ramchandani, Katrina Turner, Debbie Sharp, Joanna Thorn, Sian Noble and Jonathan Evans

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:33

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Psychological effects of air ions have been reported for more than 80 years in the media and scientific literature. This study summarizes a qualitative literature review and quantitative meta-analysis, where a...

    Authors: Vanessa Perez, Dominik D Alexander and William H Bailey

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:29

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety ...

    Authors: Thach Duc Tran, Tuan Tran and Jane Fisher

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:24

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on c...

    Authors: Yolanda López-del-Hoyo, Barbara Olivan, Juan V Luciano, Fermín Mayoral, Miquel Roca, Margalida Gili, Eva Andres, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Francisco Collazo, Ricardo Araya, Rosa Baños, Cristina Botella, Rosa Magallón and Javier García-Campayo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  20. Prior animal model and human-based studies have linked selenium concentrations to decreased risk for depression; however, this work has not focused on household groundwater levels or specific depressive sympto...

    Authors: Leigh A Johnson, Jack A Phillips, Cortney Mauer, Melissa Edwards, Valerie Hobson Balldin, James R Hall, Robert Barber, Tori L Conger, Eric J Ho and Sid E O’Bryant

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:7

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of t...

    Authors: Yaacov G Bachner, Norm O’Rourke, Margalit Goldfracht, Per Bech and Liat Ayalon

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:2

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Reducing suicidal behaviour is a major public health goal. Expanding access to care has been identified as a key strategy. In Australia, a national network of primary-care based services (headspace) has been esta...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Scott, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Django White, Bradley Whitwell, Adam J Guastella, Nick Glozier and Ian B Hickie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:234

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Previous research found a high prevalence of depression, along with chronic illnesses and disabilities, among older ED patients. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and the...

    Authors: Namkee G Choi, C Nathan Marti, Martha L Bruce and Mark E Kunik

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:233

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomi...

    Authors: Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud, Mickey Kongerslev, Kirsten Aaskov Larsen, Per Sørensen, Per Winkel, Theis Lange, Ulf Søgaard and Erik Simonsen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:232

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, ...

    Authors: Rocío Casañas, Rosa Catalán, Jose Luis del Val, Jordi Real, Sergi Valero and Miquel Casas

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:230

    Content type: Research article

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  26. With an ageing population in most Western countries, people are living longer but often with one or more chronic physical health problems. Older people in physically poor health are at greater risk of developi...

    Authors: Louise Sharpe, Catherine B Gittins, Helen M Correia, Tanya Meade, Michael K Nicholas, Patrick J Raue, Sarah McDonald and Patricia A Areán

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:207

    Content type: Study protocol

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  27. There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological therapies for bipolar disorder. To date however there have been no psychological interventions specifically designed for individua...

    Authors: Steven Jones, Lee D Mulligan, Heather Law, Graham Dunn, Mary Welford, Gina Smith and Anthony P Morrison

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:204

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  28. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling mental disorder with an incidence rate which appears to be increasing in the developed world. This fact seems to be at least partially related to lifestyle factor...

    Authors: Mauro Garcia-Toro, Miquel Roca, Saray Monzón, Margalida Vives, Bárbara Oliván, Enric Vicens, Joan Salva and Margalida Gili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:201

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family ...

    Authors: Hairong Nan, Paul H Lee, Ian McDowell, Michael Y Ni, Sunita M Stewart and Tai Hing Lam

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:198

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The increasing burden on mental health services has led to the growing use of peer support in psychological interventions. Four theoretical mechanisms have been proposed to underpin effective peer support: adv...

    Authors: Judith G Proudfoot, Amisha Jayawant, Alexis E Whitton, Gordon Parker, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Meg Smith and Jennifer Nicholas

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:196

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder (MDD) are based on results from randomized clinical trials, among others in psychotherapy efficacy trials. However, patients in these trials differ from routi...

    Authors: Rosalind van der Lem, Wouter WH de Wever, Nic JA van der Wee, Tineke van Veen, Pim Cuijpers and Frans G Zitman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:192

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Given the high prevalence of depression in primary health care (PHC), the use of screening instruments has been recommended. Both brief and long depression screening instruments have been validated in low and ...

    Authors: Dickens Akena, John Joska, Ekwaro A Obuku, Taryn Amos, Seggane Musisi and Dan J Stein

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:187

    Content type: Research article

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  33. A few recent studies have found indications of the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy for depression, usually of an extended duration. However, there is a lack of controlled studies in this area and to d...

    Authors: Gilles Ambresin, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Martin Preisig and Yves de Roten

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:182

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in 10 treatment-resistant depression patients.

    Authors: Karina K Kedzior, Vikram Rajput, Greg Price, Joseph Lee and Mathew Martin-Iverson

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:163

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Current evidence suggests that high concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers are associated with bipolar disorder characterized by severe impairment during inter-episodic periods, reduced treatment response ...

    Authors: Turan Cetin, Sinan Guloksuz, Esin Aktas Cetin, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Gunnur Deniz, E Timucin Oral and Jim van Os

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:158

    Content type: Research article

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  36. For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommenda...

    Authors: Anne Haeberle, Waldemar Greil, Stefan Russmann and Renate Grohmann

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:153

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Studies of individuals who do not meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) but with subclinical levels of depressive symptoms may aid in the identification of neurofunctional abnormalities that possib...

    Authors: Jennifer N Felder, Moria J Smoski, Rachel V Kozink, Brett Froeliger, Joseph McClernon, Joshua Bizzell, Christopher Petty and Gabriel S Dichter

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:152

    Content type: Research article

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  38. There is increasing recognition that perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are prevalent in women in low and lower-middle income countries and emerging evidence that PCMDs and alcohol abuse occur in men in...

    Authors: Thach Duc Tran, Tuan Tran, Karen Wynter and Jane Fisher

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:148

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Sleep disturbance plays an important role in major depressive disorder (MDD). Prior investigations have demonstrated that slow wave activity (SWA) during sleep is altered in MDD; however, results have not been...

    Authors: David T Plante, Eric C Landsness, Michael J Peterson, Michael R Goldstein, Brady A Riedner, Timothy Wanger, Jeffrey J Guokas, Giulio Tononi and Ruth M Benca

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:146

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the...

    Authors: Elena Milanesi, Alessandra Minelli, Nadia Cattane, Annamaria Cattaneo, Cristina Mora, Alessandro Barbon, Alessandra Mallei, Maurizio Popoli, Vincenzo Florio, Andreas Conca, Stefano Bignotti and Massimo Gennarelli

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:145

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Depression in later life is a common mental disorder with a prevalence rate of between 3% and 35% for minor depression and approximately 2% for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The most common treatment modali...

    Authors: Frans Clignet, Berno van Meijel, Annemiek van Straten and Pim Cuijpers

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:144

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. The aim of the study was to determine the most common pharmacological strategies used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) after an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment in...

    Authors: Mauro Garcia-Toro, Esteban Medina, Jaime L Galan, Miguel A Gonzalez and Jorge Maurino

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:143

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Depression in MS patients is frequent but often not treated adequately. An important underlying factor may be physical limitations that preclude face-to-face contact. Internet-based treatment showed to be effe...

    Authors: Rosa E Boeschoten, Joost Dekker, Bernard MJ Uitdehaag, Chris H Polman, Emma H Collette, Pim Cuijpers, Aartjan TF Beekman and Patricia van Oppen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:137

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Mental disorders are a significant cause of disability and loss of workplace productivity. The scientific evidence for how organisations should best support those returning to work after common mental disorder...

    Authors: Nicola J Reavley, Anna Ross, Eoin J Killackey and Anthony F Jorm

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:135

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse and recurrence. The most commonly used strategy to prevent relapse/recurrence is maintenance treatment with antidepressant me...

    Authors: Marloes J Huijbers, Jan Spijker, A Rogier T Donders, Digna JF van Schaik, Patricia van Oppen, Henricus G Ruhé, Marc B J Blom, Willem A Nolen, Johan Ormel, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Willem Kuyken, Philip Spinhoven and Anne E M Speckens

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:125

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangl...

    Authors: Tapash Roy, Cathy E Lloyd, Masuma Parvin, Khondker Galib B Mohiuddin and Mosiur Rahman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:123

    Content type: Research article

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