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Mood disorders

Section edited by Florian Seemüller

This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, biological psychiatry, depression, psychoneuroendocrinology, bipolar disorders, antidepressants, psychopharmacology, neuroimaging, transcranial/cortical stimulation, electroencephalography and co-morbid conditions associated with mood disorders.


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  1. Major depression will become the second most important cause of disability in 2020. Computerized cognitive-behaviour therapy could be an efficacious and cost-effective option for its treatment. No studies on c...

    Authors: Yolanda López-del-Hoyo, Barbara Olivan, Juan V Luciano, Fermín Mayoral, Miquel Roca, Margalida Gili, Eva Andres, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Francisco Collazo, Ricardo Araya, Rosa Baños, Cristina Botella, Rosa Magallón and Javier García-Campayo

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:21

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Prior animal model and human-based studies have linked selenium concentrations to decreased risk for depression; however, this work has not focused on household groundwater levels or specific depressive sympto...

    Authors: Leigh A Johnson, Jack A Phillips, Cortney Mauer, Melissa Edwards, Valerie Hobson Balldin, James R Hall, Robert Barber, Tori L Conger, Eric J Ho and Sid E O’Bryant

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:7

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of t...

    Authors: Yaacov G Bachner, Norm O’Rourke, Margalit Goldfracht, Per Bech and Liat Ayalon

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2013 13:2

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Reducing suicidal behaviour is a major public health goal. Expanding access to care has been identified as a key strategy. In Australia, a national network of primary-care based services (headspace) has been esta...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Scott, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Django White, Bradley Whitwell, Adam J Guastella, Nick Glozier and Ian B Hickie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:234

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Previous research found a high prevalence of depression, along with chronic illnesses and disabilities, among older ED patients. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and the...

    Authors: Namkee G Choi, C Nathan Marti, Martha L Bruce and Mark E Kunik

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:233

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Most interventions for depression have shown small or no effects. ‘Third wave‘ cognitive therapy and mentalization-based therapy have both gained some ground as treatments of psychological problems. No randomi...

    Authors: Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud, Mickey Kongerslev, Kirsten Aaskov Larsen, Per Sørensen, Per Winkel, Theis Lange, Ulf Søgaard and Erik Simonsen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:232

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Studies show the effectiveness of group psychoeducation in reducing symptoms in people with depression. However, few controlled studies that have included aspects of personal care and healthy lifestyle (diet, ...

    Authors: Rocío Casañas, Rosa Catalán, Jose Luis del Val, Jordi Real, Sergi Valero and Miquel Casas

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:230

    Content type: Research article

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  8. With an ageing population in most Western countries, people are living longer but often with one or more chronic physical health problems. Older people in physically poor health are at greater risk of developi...

    Authors: Louise Sharpe, Catherine B Gittins, Helen M Correia, Tanya Meade, Michael K Nicholas, Patrick J Raue, Sarah McDonald and Patricia A Areán

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:207

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological therapies for bipolar disorder. To date however there have been no psychological interventions specifically designed for individua...

    Authors: Steven Jones, Lee D Mulligan, Heather Law, Graham Dunn, Mary Welford, Gina Smith and Anthony P Morrison

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:204

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling mental disorder with an incidence rate which appears to be increasing in the developed world. This fact seems to be at least partially related to lifestyle factor...

    Authors: Mauro Garcia-Toro, Miquel Roca, Saray Monzón, Margalida Vives, Bárbara Oliván, Enric Vicens, Joan Salva and Margalida Gili

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:201

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family ...

    Authors: Hairong Nan, Paul H Lee, Ian McDowell, Michael Y Ni, Sunita M Stewart and Tai Hing Lam

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:198

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The increasing burden on mental health services has led to the growing use of peer support in psychological interventions. Four theoretical mechanisms have been proposed to underpin effective peer support: adv...

    Authors: Judith G Proudfoot, Amisha Jayawant, Alexis E Whitton, Gordon Parker, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Meg Smith and Jennifer Nicholas

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:196

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder (MDD) are based on results from randomized clinical trials, among others in psychotherapy efficacy trials. However, patients in these trials differ from routi...

    Authors: Rosalind van der Lem, Wouter WH de Wever, Nic JA van der Wee, Tineke van Veen, Pim Cuijpers and Frans G Zitman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:192

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Given the high prevalence of depression in primary health care (PHC), the use of screening instruments has been recommended. Both brief and long depression screening instruments have been validated in low and ...

    Authors: Dickens Akena, John Joska, Ekwaro A Obuku, Taryn Amos, Seggane Musisi and Dan J Stein

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:187

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A few recent studies have found indications of the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy for depression, usually of an extended duration. However, there is a lack of controlled studies in this area and to d...

    Authors: Gilles Ambresin, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Martin Preisig and Yves de Roten

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:182

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in 10 treatment-resistant depression patients.

    Authors: Karina K Kedzior, Vikram Rajput, Greg Price, Joseph Lee and Mathew Martin-Iverson

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:163

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Current evidence suggests that high concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers are associated with bipolar disorder characterized by severe impairment during inter-episodic periods, reduced treatment response ...

    Authors: Turan Cetin, Sinan Guloksuz, Esin Aktas Cetin, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Gunnur Deniz, E Timucin Oral and Jim van Os

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:158

    Content type: Research article

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  18. For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommenda...

    Authors: Anne Haeberle, Waldemar Greil, Stefan Russmann and Renate Grohmann

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:153

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Studies of individuals who do not meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) but with subclinical levels of depressive symptoms may aid in the identification of neurofunctional abnormalities that possib...

    Authors: Jennifer N Felder, Moria J Smoski, Rachel V Kozink, Brett Froeliger, Joseph McClernon, Joshua Bizzell, Christopher Petty and Gabriel S Dichter

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:152

    Content type: Research article

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  20. There is increasing recognition that perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are prevalent in women in low and lower-middle income countries and emerging evidence that PCMDs and alcohol abuse occur in men in...

    Authors: Thach Duc Tran, Tuan Tran, Karen Wynter and Jane Fisher

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:148

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Sleep disturbance plays an important role in major depressive disorder (MDD). Prior investigations have demonstrated that slow wave activity (SWA) during sleep is altered in MDD; however, results have not been...

    Authors: David T Plante, Eric C Landsness, Michael J Peterson, Michael R Goldstein, Brady A Riedner, Timothy Wanger, Jeffrey J Guokas, Giulio Tononi and Ruth M Benca

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:146

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the...

    Authors: Elena Milanesi, Alessandra Minelli, Nadia Cattane, Annamaria Cattaneo, Cristina Mora, Alessandro Barbon, Alessandra Mallei, Maurizio Popoli, Vincenzo Florio, Andreas Conca, Stefano Bignotti and Massimo Gennarelli

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:145

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Depression in later life is a common mental disorder with a prevalence rate of between 3% and 35% for minor depression and approximately 2% for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The most common treatment modali...

    Authors: Frans Clignet, Berno van Meijel, Annemiek van Straten and Pim Cuijpers

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:144

    Content type: Study protocol

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  24. The aim of the study was to determine the most common pharmacological strategies used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) after an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment in...

    Authors: Mauro Garcia-Toro, Esteban Medina, Jaime L Galan, Miguel A Gonzalez and Jorge Maurino

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:143

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Depression in MS patients is frequent but often not treated adequately. An important underlying factor may be physical limitations that preclude face-to-face contact. Internet-based treatment showed to be effe...

    Authors: Rosa E Boeschoten, Joost Dekker, Bernard MJ Uitdehaag, Chris H Polman, Emma H Collette, Pim Cuijpers, Aartjan TF Beekman and Patricia van Oppen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:137

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Mental disorders are a significant cause of disability and loss of workplace productivity. The scientific evidence for how organisations should best support those returning to work after common mental disorder...

    Authors: Nicola J Reavley, Anna Ross, Eoin J Killackey and Anthony F Jorm

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:135

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Depression is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse and recurrence. The most commonly used strategy to prevent relapse/recurrence is maintenance treatment with antidepressant me...

    Authors: Marloes J Huijbers, Jan Spijker, A Rogier T Donders, Digna JF van Schaik, Patricia van Oppen, Henricus G Ruhé, Marc B J Blom, Willem A Nolen, Johan Ormel, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Willem Kuyken, Philip Spinhoven and Anne E M Speckens

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:125

    Content type: Study protocol

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  28. Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangl...

    Authors: Tapash Roy, Cathy E Lloyd, Masuma Parvin, Khondker Galib B Mohiuddin and Mosiur Rahman

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:123

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The aim of the present study is to investigate the responder rate of Electroconvulsive therapy, ECT, in clinical routine work and to define clinical characteristics predictive of response to ECT. The main hypo...

    Authors: Axel Nordenskjöld, Lars von Knorring and Ingemar Engström

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:115

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression,...

    Authors: Alex Brown, Ushma Scales, Warwick Beever, Bernadette Rickards, Kevin Rowley and Kerin O’Dea

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:97

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association bet...

    Authors: Carmen de Burgos-Lunar, Paloma Gómez-Campelo, Juan Cárdenas-Valladolid, Carmen Y Fuentes-Rodríguez, María I Granados-Menéndez, Francisco López-López and Miguel A Salinero-Fort

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:95

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. This study has explored the classification of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital. A review of the literature reveals that there is a need for studies using stringent methodological approaches.

    Authors: Terje Øiesvold, Mary Nivison, Vidje Hansen, Knut W Sørgaard, Line Østensen and Ingunn Skre

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:13

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version ...

    Authors: Zhaoyu Gan, Zili Han, Kanglai Li, Feici Diao, Xiaoli Wu, Nianhong Guan and Jinbei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:8

    Content type: Research article

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  34. While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales...

    Authors: Tanya Covic, Steven R Cumming, Julie F Pallant, Nick Manolios, Paul Emery, Philip G Conaghan and Alan Tennant

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:6

    Content type: Research article

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  35. More severe and persistent forms of affective disorders are accompanied by grey matter loss in key frontal and temporal structures. It is unclear whether such changes precede the onset of illness, occur early ...

    Authors: Jim Lagopoulos, Daniel F Hermens, Sharon L Naismith, Elizabeth M Scott and Ian B Hickie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:4

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-...

    Authors: Antti-Pekka Elomaa, Leo Niskanen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Heimo Viinamäki, Jukka Hintikka, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Kirsi Honkalampi, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Ilkka T Harvima and Soili M Lehto

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2012 12:2

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD) in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD...

    Authors: Eugene Kinyanda, Susan Hoskins, Juliet Nakku, Saira Nawaz and Vikram Patel

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:205

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Although it is well established that prostate cancer (PCa) patients are more likely to experience clinical depression than their age-matched non-prostate cancer peers, and that such depression can have negativ...

    Authors: Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika and David R Christie

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:201

    Content type: Research article

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  39. A standardized instrument for recording the specific cognitive psychopathology of chronically depressed patients has not yet been developed. Up until now, preoperational thinking of chronically depressed patie...

    Authors: Tanja Kühnen, Franziska Knappke, Tanja Otto, Stephanie Friedrich, Jan P Klein, Kai G Kahl, Michael Hüppe, Valerija Sipos and Ulrich Schweiger

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:199

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a pri...

    Authors: Wim H Winthorst, Wendy J Post, Ybe Meesters, Brenda WHJ Penninx and Willem A Nolen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:198

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There is little evidence as to whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice results in better clinical outcomes for people with anxiety and depression. This study aims to determine possible ass...

    Authors: Marijn A Prins, Peter FM Verhaak, Mirrian Hilbink-Smolders, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Miranda GH Laurant, Klaas van der Meer, Harm WJ van Marwijk, Brenda WJH Penninx and Jozien M Bensing

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:180

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Managing early warning signs is an effective approach to preventing relapse in bipolar disorder. Involving relatives in relapse prevention has been shown to maximize the effectiveness of this approach. However...

    Authors: Sarah Peters, Eleanor Pontin, Fiona Lobban and Richard Morriss

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:172

    Content type: Research article

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  43. This study aimed to document the outcome dimensions that physicians see as important in defining cure from depression. The study also aimed to analyse physicians' attitudes about depression and to find out whe...

    Authors: Koen Demyttenaere, Marc Ansseau, Eric Constant, Adelin Albert, Geert Van Gassen and Kees van Heeringen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:169

    Content type: Research article

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  44. To determine the use of antidepressants (ADs) in people with sub-threshold depression (SD); the lifetime prevalence of mania and hypomania in SD and the link between ADs use, bipolarity and anxiety disorders i...

    Authors: Mauro G Carta, Leonardo Tondo, Matteo Balestrieri, Filippo Caraci, Liliana dell'Osso, Guido Di Sciascio, Carlo Faravelli, Maria Carolina Hardoy, Maria E Lecca, Maria Francesca Moro, Krishna M Bhat, Massimo Casacchia and Filippo Drago

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:164

    Content type: Research article

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  45. This study aims to evaluate relationship between three different clinical conditions: Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) and reduction in regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in order ...

    Authors: Maria Carolina Hardoy, Mariangela Cadeddu, Alessandra Serra, Maria Francesca Moro, Gioia Mura, Gisa Mellino, Krishna M Bhat, Gianmarco Altoé, Paolo Usai, Mario Piga and Mauro G Carta

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2011 11:148

    Content type: Research article

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