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  1. Current operational diagnostic systems have substantial limitations for lifetime diagnostic classification of bipolar spectrum disorders. Issues include: (1) It is difficult to operationalize the integration o...

    Authors: Nick Craddock, Ian Jones, George Kirov and Lisa Jones

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Polypharmacy with psychoactive drugs is an increasingly common and debatable contemporary practice in clinical psychiatry based more upon experience than evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate t...

    Authors: Carlos De las Cuevas and Emilio J Sanz

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Early intervention teams attempt to improve outcome in schizophrenia through earlier detection and the provision of phase-specific treatments. Whilst the number of early intervention teams is growing, there is...

    Authors: Max Marshall, Austin Lockwood, Shôn Lewis and Matthew Fiander

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:17

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Several studies have suggested an association between the functional Val 158 Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene and neurocognitive performance...

    Authors: Sophie Mills, Kate Langley, Marianne Van den Bree, Eddy Street, Darko Turic, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan and Anita Thapar

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:15

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its ef...

    Authors: William Gardner, Katherine Shear, Kelly J Kelleher, Kathleen A Pajer, Oommen Mammen, Daniel Buysse and Ellen Frank

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:13

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Since the introduction of antipsychotics, especially the so called atypicals, the treatment of schizophrenia has shown important improvements. At the present time, it is preferred to label clozapine and other ...

    Authors: Rogelio Apiquian, Ana Fresán, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Rosa-Elena Ulloa and Humberto Nicolini

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine clinical risk factors, including suicide intent and hopelessness, for suicide and risk of death from all causes after attempted suicide over a 12-year follo...

    Authors: Kirsi Suominen, Erkki Isometsä, Aini Ostamo and Jouko Lönnqvist

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:11

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, clinically heterogenous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity dis...

    Authors: Shahin Akhondzadeh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi and Mojgan Khademi

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:9

    Content type: Research article

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  9. This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms.

    Authors: Daniel F Kripke, Girardin Jean-Louis, Jeffrey A Elliott, Melville R Klauber, Katharine M Rex, Arja Tuunainen and Robert D Langer

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:8

    Content type: Research article

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  10. It is unclear why approximately 10% of suicide completers seem to be psychiatrically normal. To better understand this issue, we studied suicide completers without an axis I diagnosis and compared them, on mea...

    Authors: Carl Ernst, Aleksandra Lalovic, Alain Lesage, Monique Seguin, Michel Tousignant and Gustavo Turecki

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:7

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Unipolar depression might be characterized by a 'low-thyroid function syndrome'. To our knowledge, this is the first study which explores the possible relationship of DSM-IV depressive subtypes and the medium ...

    Authors: Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Apostolos Iacovides, Philippos Grammaticos, George St Kaprinis and Per Bech

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Pathological memo...

    Authors: Judith Glaesser, Frank Neuner, Ralph Lütgehetmann, Roger Schmidt and Thomas Elbert

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:5

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Concentrations of monoamine metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been used extensively as indirect estimates of monoamine turnover in the brain. CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations are partl...

    Authors: Erik G Jönsson, Jessica Bah, Jonas Melke, Rami Abou Jamra, Johannes Schumacher, Lars Westberg, Roland Ivo, Sven Cichon, Peter Propping, Markus M Nöthen, Elias Eriksson and Göran C Sedvall

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:4

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Epidemiological reports about dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of dementia and AD in a population ...

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ana Berthina Hernández-Alvarado, Rosa Oralia Tapia-Rodríguez, Ángel Guerrero-Iturbe, Karina Rodríguez-Corral and Sergio Estrada Martínez

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:3

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedu...

    Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Mehdi Rahgozar, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Haratoun Davidian, Hossein Malek Afzali, Hamid Reza Naghavi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Mehdi Saberi, Bita Mesgarpour, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Javad Alaghebandrad and Mehdi Tehranidoost

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:2

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 i...

    Authors: Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Apostolos Iacovides, Soula Kleanthous, Stavros Samolis, Kyriakos Gougoulias, George St Kaprinis and Per Bech

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Internet-based depression communities provide a forum for individuals to communicate and share information and ideas. There has been little research into the health status and other characteristics of users of...

    Authors: John Powell, Noel McCarthy and Gunther Eysenbach

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizo...

    Authors: Carina Moll, Ursula Gessler, Stephanie Bartsch, Hany George El-sayeh, Mark Fenton and Clive Elliott Adams

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic pros...

    Authors: Jukka Hintikka, Tommi Tolmunen, Antti Tanskanen and Heimo Viinamäki

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:17

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Reza Radgoodarzi and Seyed Ali Ahmadi-Abhari

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Hypercortisolism as a sign of hypothamamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis overactivity and sleep EEG changes are frequently observed in depression. Closely related to the HPA axis is the renin-angiotensin...

    Authors: Harald Murck, Katja Held, Marc Ziegenbein, Heike Künzel, Kathrin Koch and Axel Steiger

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:15

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Morning light exposure administered as simulated dawn looks a promising method to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder, but it may moreover help with resetting the inaccurate organisation of body clock functions ...

    Authors: Sami Leppämäki, Ybe Meesters, Jari Haukka, Jouko Lönnqvist and Timo Partonen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Several lines of evidence have supported possible roles of the sigma receptors in the etiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of antipsychotic efficacy. An association study provided genetic evidence that the...

    Authors: Naohiko Uchida, Hiroshi Ujike, Kenji Nakata, Manabu Takaki, Akira Nomura, Takeshi Katsu, Yuji Tanaka, Takaki Imamura, Ayumu Sakai and Shigetoshi Kuroda

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:13

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while ther...

    Authors: Pekka Tani, Nina Lindberg, Taina Nieminen-von Wendt, Lennart von Wendt, Lauri Alanko, Björn Appelberg and Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:12

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Previous studies show that both the categorical and dimensional descriptors of personality disorders are correlated with normal personality traits. Recently, a 92-item inventory, the Parker Personality Measure...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Lan Hu, Ling Mu, Dahong Chen, Qi Song, Mengping Zhou, Weijuan Zhang, Jun Hou, Zhigang Li, Jun Wang, Jianhui Liu and Chengsen He

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:11

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Neurocognitive impairment is frequently described in a number of psychiatric disorders and may be a direct consequence of serotonergic dysfunction. As impairments in executive functions are some of the most fr...

    Authors: Peter Gallagher, Anna E Massey, Allan H Young and R Hamish McAllister-Williams

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:10

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Prospective memory (PM), the act of remembering that something has to be done in the future without any explicit prompting to recall, provides a useful framework with which to examine problems in internal-sour...

    Authors: Brita Elvevåg, Elizabeth A Maylor and Abigail L Gilbert

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:9

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Bipolar disorder is a lifelong episodic condition characterized by mood swings between mania and depression. Several lines of evidence suggest that serotonin is likely to play a pivotal role in the pathophysio...

    Authors: Shahin Akhondzadeh, Hassan Mohajari, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi and Homayoun Amini

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:7

    Content type: Research article

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  29. We aimed at studying the seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, the distribution of hospital admissions by season, and the persistence of the circadian type in twins with bipolar disorder and their healthy co...

    Authors: Reeta Hakkarainen, Carolina Johansson, Tuula Kieseppä, Timo Partonen, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaakko Kaprio and Jouko Lönnqvist

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:6

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's rol...

    Authors: Emily J Wang, Daniel F Kripke, Martin T Stein and Barbara L Parry

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:5

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Lithium-induced thyroid abnormalities have been documented in many studies. They may occur despite normal plasma lithium levels. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine possible relationship between...

    Authors: Seyed-Ali Ahmadi-Abhari, Padideh Ghaeli, Fanak Fahimi, Fatemeh Esfahanian, Hasan Farsam, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Issa Jahanzad, Zinat-Nadya Hatmi and Simin Dashti

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:4

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Several studies have reported alterations in finger and a-b ridge counts, and their derived measures of asymmetry, in schizophrenia compared to controls. Because ridges are fully formed by the end of the second t...

    Authors: Sukanta Saha, Danuta Loesch, David Chant, Joy Welham, Ossama El-Saadi, Lourdes Fañanás, Bryan Mowry and John McGrath

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:3

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a brief self-rating scale for the assessment of depression. It is reported to be valid because it is based on the universe of symptoms of DSM-IV and ICD-10 depression. T...

    Authors: KN Fountoulakis, A Iacovides, S Kleanthous, S Samolis, K Gougoulias, I Tsiptsios, GS Kaprinis and P Bech

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Agitated or violent patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians and clinical practice all differ. Systematic reviews show that a...

    Authors: Gisele Huf, Evandro SF Coutinho and Clive E Adams

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:11

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. The International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE) constitutes the proposal of the WHO for the reliable diagnosis of personality disorders (PD). The IPDE assesses pathological personality and is compat...

    Authors: KN Fountoulakis, A Iacovides, Ch Ioannidou, F Bascialla, I Nimatoudis, G Kaprinis, A Janca and A Dahl

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:6

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Psychosocial Primary Care (PPC) is a model of service delivery for patients with mental disorders and psychosocial problems which was established in Germany in 1987. This study was performed as part of the eva...

    Authors: Kurt Fritzsche, Ulrike Armbruster, Armin Hartmann and Michael Wirsching

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:5

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The medical management of aggressive and violent behaviour is a critical situation for which there is little evidence. In order to prepare for a randomised trial, due to start in the psychiatric emergency room...

    Authors: Gisele Huf, Evandro da Silva Freire Coutinho, Hugo M Fagundes Jr, Edmar S Oliveira, Jose Ramon RA Lopez, Marcio Gewandszajder, Andreia da Luz Carvalho, Alexandre Keusen and Clive E Adams

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:4

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Poor data exist on the influence of psychosocial variables on the female/male ratio of depression because of the small number of cases and the resulting limited numbers of variables available for investigation...

    Authors: Karin Gutiérrez-Lobos, Michael Scherer, Peter Anderer and Heinz Katschnig

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:3

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Recent electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) efficacy studies of right unilateral (RUL) ECT may not apply to real life clinics with a wide range of patients with major depressive episodes.

    Authors: Pertti Heikman, Heikki Katila, Seppo Sarna, Kristian Wahlbeck and Kimmo Kuoppasalmi

    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2002 2:2

    Content type: Research article

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