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Table 2 Bivariate Relationships between Smoking Status (Current vs. Former/Never) and Diagnostic Category, Demographic Characteristics and Other Substance Use

From: Gender-specific profiles of tobacco use among non-institutionalized people with serious mental illness

Characteristic All Men Women
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
Diagnostic Category 1       
   Schizophrenia spectrum disorder 1.7** 1.2 - 2.3 1.8** 1.2 - 2.8 1.3 0.8 - 1.9
   Mood or anxiety disorder (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Gender       
   Men 2.5*** 1.8 - 3.3 -- -- -- --
   Women (referent) 1.0 -- -- -- -- --
Age Group       
   17-29 years 2.4* 1.2 - 4.7 1.6 0.6 - 4.3 2.8* 1.1 - 7.0
   30-49 years 1.7* 1.1 - 2.6 1.8 0.9 - 3.7 1.1 0.6 - 2.0
   50-59 years 2.3** 1.4 - 3.7 2.4* 1.1 - 5.1 1.8 0.9 - 3.4
   60+ years (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Racialised Group       
   No (e.g., white/European) 1.8** 1.3 - 2.6 1.4 0.9 - 2.4 2.4** 1.4 - 4.1
   Yes (e.g., Aboriginal/Asian/South Asian/Black) (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Education       
   Less than high school 1.8** 1.3 - 2.6 2.1** 1.3 - 3.4 1.2 0.7 - 2.1
   High school or more (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Marital Status       
   Single and never married 1.6 1.0 - 2.7 2.0 0.8 - 4.8 0.9 0.5 - 1.7
   Separated/Divorced 2.0* 1.1 - 3.5 3.3* 1.2 - 8.9 1.4 0.7 - 2.8
   Widowed 1.2 0.5 - 2.9 4.7 0.4 - 52.1 1.0 0.4 - 2.7
   Married (spouse or common law partner) (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Housing       
   Independent (private house or apartment) (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
   Residential facility (licensed/boarding) 2.0** 1.3 - 3.0 1.4 0.7 - 2.5 2.7** 1.4 - 5.1
   Semi-independent (subsidy/supportive care) 1.4 0.9 - 2.1 1.2 0.7 - 2.3 1.5 0.8 - 2.9
   Shelter/hostel/no housing2 17.9** 2.3 -137.7 M -- M --
Living Arrangement       
   Lives alone 2.2*** 1.5 - 3.1 2.1* 1.2 - 3.6 1.9* 1.1 - 3.3
   Lives with family (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
   Group home resident 3.4*** 2.0 - 5.6 2.4* 1.1 - 5.1 4.3*** 2.1 - 8.8
   Lives with roommate/friend(s)/girlfriend/boyfriend 2.1* 1.2 - 3.7 2.7* 1.1 - 6.4 1.6 0.7 - 3.6
Sources of Financial Support (multiple responses permitted)       
   Disability benefits (yes v. no) 0.9 0.6 - 1.1 0.8 0.5 - 1.2 0.8 0.5 - 1.3
   Canada Pension Plan or other pension (yes v. no) 0.7 0.5 - 1.1 0.6 0.4 - 1.0 1.0 0.6 - 1.6
   Earned income/paid work (yes v. no) 0.8 0.5 - 1.1 0.7 0.4 - 1.1 0.8 0.5 - 1.3
   Social assistance/welfare (yes v. no) 3.3*** 2.1 - 5.0 3.1*** 1.7 - 5.8 3.2*** 1.7 - 5.9
   Family contribution (yes v. no) 0.8 0.5 - 1.2 0.9 0.4 - 1.9 1.0 0.6 - 1.6
Any Alcohol Intoxication (in past month)       
   Yes 2.2** 1.3 - 3.7 2.1* 1.0 - 4.2 1.4 0.5 - 3.5
   No (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Any Cocaine Use (in past month)       
   Yes 7.5*** 2.6 - 21.8 8.4** 1.9 - 36.3 3.7 0.9 - 20.6
   No (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Any Cannabis Use (in past month)       
   Yes 5.5*** 3.2 - 9.3 4.6*** 2.0 - 10.5 5.2*** 2.5 - 10.5
   No (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Brief Symptom Inventory (Global Severity Index)       
   < 63 (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
   ≥ 63 1.3 0.8-2.0 1.0 0.5 - 2.0 1.6 0.8 - 3.0
  1. 1 76 (38.0%) of the 200 women with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were current smokers. 55 (32.7%) of the 168 women with mood or anxiety disorders were current smokers. 143 (62.7%) of the 228 men with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were current smokers. 59 (48%) of the 123 men with a mood or anxiety disorders were current smokers.
  2. 2Treated as missing in gender-specific models because of small numbers.
  3. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.