Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariate Relationships between Smoking Status (Current vs. Former/Never) and Diagnostic Category, Demographic Characteristics and Other Substance Use

From: Gender-specific profiles of tobacco use among non-institutionalized people with serious mental illness

Characteristic All Men Women
  Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI Adjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI
Diagnostic Category       
   Schizophrenia spectrum disorder 1.5* 1.0 - 2.1 2.0* 1.2 - 3.3 NI1 --
   Mood or anxiety disorder (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- -- --
Gender       
   Men 2.0*** 1.4 - 2.9 -- -- -- --
   Women (referent) 1.0 -- -- -- -- --
Age Group       
   17-29 years 2.6* 1.2 - 5.8 NI -- 2.8* 1.0 - 8.0
   30-49 years 1.4 0.8 - 2.5 -- -- 1.0 0.5 - 2.0
   50-59 years 1.8* 1.0 - 3.1 -- -- 1.7 0.9 - 3.5
   60+ years (referent) 1.0 --    1.0 --
Racialised Group       
   No (e.g., white/European) 1.8** 1.2 - 2.7 1.5 0.8 - 2.6 2.5** 1.4 - 4.6
   Yes (e.g., Aboriginal/Asian/South Asian/Black) (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Education       
   Less than high school -- -- 1.8* 1.0 - 3.1 NI --
   High school or more (referent) -- -- 1.0 -- -- --
Marital Status 2       
   Single and never married 1.0 0.5 - 1.7 1.7 0.6 - 4.4 NI --
   Separated/Divorced 1.8 1.0 - 3.5 3.8* 1.2 - 11.4 -- --
   Widowed 1.4 0.5 - 4.1 C -- -- --
   Married (spouse or common law partner) (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- -- --
Housing       
   Independent (private house or apartment) (referent) 1.0 -- NI -- 1.0 --
   Residential facility (licensed/boarding) 1.8* 1.1 - 3.1 -- -- 2.7** 1.3 - 5.8
   Semi-independent (subsidy/supportive care) 1.6 1.0 - 2.6 -- -- 1.9 0.9 - 3.8
   Shelter/hostel/no housing M3 -- -- -- M --
Source of Financial Support       
   Social assistance/welfare (yes v. no) 2.7*** 1.6 - 4.4 2.6* 1.3 - 5.4 3.3*** 1.6 - 6.5
Any Cocaine Use (in past month)       
   Yes -- -- 4.9 1.0 - 24.0 -- --
   No (referent) -- -- 1.0 -- -- --
Any Cannabis Use (in past month)       
   Yes 4.5*** 2.5 - 8.1 4.6*** 2.2 - 10.0 3.2* 1.2 - 8.0
   No (referent) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
  1. 1 Not included in the model because the bivariate relationship (unadjusted odds ratio) had a p value ≥ .25 (NI).
  2. 2Widowed combined with separated/divorced in gender-specific models because of small numbers (C).
  3. 3Treated as missing in gender-specific models because of small numbers (M).
  4. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.