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Table 2 Relative risk of positive psychotic-like symptoms in relation to estimated dietary intake of fish

From: Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population

Dietary intake Positive psychotic-like symptomsa
  Low level group Middle level group High level group
     Energy adjusted Multivariateb   Energy adjusted Multivariateb
  No.   No. RR 95% CI RR 95% CI No. RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Salmon-type fish and herring/mackerel, frequency
never 5 027 Ref. 4 090      252     
1-3 per month 5 962   4 547 0.93 0.88-0.98 0.99c 0.93-1.05 216 0.72 0.60-0.86 0.81c 0.66-0.98
1 per week 6 381   4 727 0.90 0.85-0.95 0.99c 0.93-1.05 248 0.76 0.64-0.90 0.92c 0.75-1.12
≥2 per week 494   526 1.27 1.12-1.43 1.32c 1.15-1.51 48 1.74 1.26-2.39 1.90c 1.34-2.70
Cod/saithe/pike, frequency
never 1 289 Ref. 1 136      96     
1-3 per month 7 009   5 311 0.85 0.78-0.93 0.89d 0.82-0.98 322 0.62 0.49-0.78 0.70d 0.55-0.89
1 per week 8 096   6 185 0.84 0.77-0.92 0.87d 0.80-0.95 270 0.43 0.34-0.55 0.46d 0.36-0.59
≥2 per week 1 470   1 258 0.93 0.83-1.04 0.90d 0.81-1.01 76 0.69 0.50-0.93 0.57d 0.41-0.79
Shellfish, frequency
never 4 540 Ref. 3 815      243     
1-3 per month 11 075   8 219 0.88 0.84-0.93 0.90e 0.85-0.95 412 0.70 0.59-0.82 0.78e 0.66-0.93
1 per week 1 893   1 453 0.91 0.84-0.99 0.92e 0.84-1.00 78 0.77 0.59-1.00 0.84e 0.64-1.11
≥2 per week 356   403 1.34 1.15-1.55 1.28e 1.09-1.49 31 1.70 1.16-2.48 1.42e 0.94-2.14
All fish and seafood, frequency
never 533 Ref. 476      44     
1-3 per month 1 131   996 0.96 0.82-1.11 0.96 f 0.83-1.12 84 0.87 0.60-1.27 0.89 f 0.61-1.31
1 per week 7 025   5 450 0.83 0.73-0.95 0.86 f 0.76-0.89 290 0.48 0.34-0.67 0.51 f 0.36-0.71
2 per week 7 215   5 261 0.77 0.68-0.88 0.82 f 0.71-0.93 264 0.42 0.30-0.58 0.45 f 0.32-0.64
3-4 per week 1 987   1 668 0.88 0.77-1.02 0.93 f 0.80-1.07 80 0.45 0.31-0.66 0.47 f 0.31-0.70
>5 per week 520   541 1.09 0.92-1.30 1.13 f 0.94-1.35 55 1.19 0.78-1.81 1.12 f 0.72-1.74
  1. a Participants categorized into levels of psychotic-like symptoms; low, middle, high (see methods section)
  2. b In the multivariate analysis presented, we initially tested the effects of adjusting also for BMI, level of education, country of birth, smoking, dietary intake of meat, dairy products, fruits, cereals and refined sugar, rheumatoid arthritis, gluten intolerance, diabetes and multivitamin supplement. However, none of these covariates change the estimates substantially, and was therefore not included in the final multivariate model
  3. c Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vegetables, vitamin B12, alcohol, cod-type fish and shellfish
  4. d Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vegetables, vitamin B12, alcohol, salmon-type fish and shellfish
  5. e Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vegetables, vitamin B12, alcohol, salmon-type fish and cod-type fish
  6. f Adjusted for age, total energy intake and dietary intake of vegetables, vitamin B12 and alcohol