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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics and Selected Univariate Predictors of Switching

From: Predictors of switching antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia

Variable All patients
(N = 648)
Switchers
(n = 191)
Completers
(n = 304)
p value
(switchers vs.
completers)1
p value
(univariate
survival
comparison)2
Age, mean (SD), y 42.9 (12.1) 42.8 (12.5) 43.7 (11.8) 0.404 0.724
Female, n (%) 239 (37%) 87 (46%) 106 (35%) 0.018 0.013
Caucasian, n (%) 352 (54%) 107 (56%) 170 (56%) 0.998 0.890
Currently employed,
n (%)
122 (19%) 36 (19%) 64 (21%) 0.568 0.903
Illness duration, mean (SD), y 20.6 (12.2) 20.6 (12.6) 21.3 (12.1) 0.577 0.981
Hospitalized, previous year, mo
mean (SD)
0.51 (1.53) 0.40 (1.25) 0.49 (1.54) 0.450 0.343
Switch in previous year, n (%) 85 (13%) 23 (13%) 44 (15%) 0.588 0.650
Any antipsychotic previous year, n (%) 579 (89%) 165 (86%) 284 (93%) 0.011 0.095
Substance abuse diagnosis, n (%) 289 (45%) 70 (37%) 135 (44%) 0.111 0.038
Schizoaffective diagnosis, n (%) 280 (43%) 80 (42%) 130 (43%) 0.852 0.795
Ever attempted suicide, n (%) 235 (38%) 78 (43%) 99 (34%) 0.064 0.084
Ever incarcerated,
n (%)
284 (46%) 71 (38%) 127 (43%) 0.295 0.075
PANSS total score, mean (SD) 86.8 (20.0) 84.5 (18.8) 87.4 (21.1) 0.120 0.102
PANSS Davis, positive symptoms, mean (SD) 22.3 (6.3) 21.9 (5.8) 22.1 (6.6) 0.796 0.545
PANSS Davis, negative symptoms, mean (SD) 21.3 (7.0) 20.4 (6.8) 21.9 (7.3) 0.026 0.043
PANSS Davis, impulsivity/hostility, mean (SD) 8.9 (3.6) 8.9 (3.9) 8.9 (3.6) 0.990 0.675
PANSS Davis, disorganized thought, mean (SD) 21.2 (6.0) 20.7 (5.6) 21.6 (6.3) 0.096 0.085
PANSS Davis, anxiety/depression, mean (SD) 13.0 (4.2) 12.7 (4.0) 13.0 (4.3) 0.411 0.445
SF-36 Physical component score, mean (SD) -0.43 (1.04) -0.43 (1.05) -0.42 (1.01) 0.963 0.803
SF-36 Mental component score, mean (SD) -1.08 (1.33) -1.14 (1.33) -0.82 (1.28) 0.009 0.106
Barnes Akathisia 0.24 0.20 (0.53) 0.25 (0.62) 0.356 0.273
item #1, objective, mean (SD) (0.57)     
Barnes Akathisia, total score, mean (SD) 0.99 (1.58) 0.96 (1.46) 0.95 (1.67) 0.954 0.813
GAF functioning, current score, mean (SD) 46.1 (12.9) 47.2 (13.4) 47.0 (13.2) 0.842 0.323
Antidepressant Drugs taken (%) 297 (46%) 85 (45%) 212 (46%) 0.667 0.340
Anti-Anxiety
Drugs taken (%)
187 (29%) 54 (28%) 133 (29%) 0.850 0.810
Antiparkinsonian
Drugs taken (%)
315 (49%) 93 (49%) 222 (49%) 1.000 0.453
Patient weight, mean (SD), kg 86.7 (20.7) 86.9 (21.2) 87.7 (20.4) 0.706 0.947
Body mass index, mean (SD) 29.7 (6.8) 30.4 (7.1) 29.8 (6.9) 0.426 0.229
Patient weight change from baseline to 2 weeks, mean (SD), kg +0.8 (2.8) +0.7 (3.2) +0.8 (2.4) 0.706 0.646
Pre-existing depression, n (%) 96 (15%) 36 (19%) 39 (13%) 0.073 0.056
Pre-existing insomnia, n (%) 66 (10%) 26 (14%) 24 (8%) 0.047 0.030
PANSS Davis anxiety/depression, change from baseline to 2 weeks, mean (SD) -1.42 (3.47) -1.19 (3.74) -1.88 (3.36) 0.041 0.093
Barnes Akathisia objective score, change from baseline to 2 weeks, mean (SD) -0.04 (0.59) +0.02 (0.62) -0.05 (0.57) 0.193 0.058
  1. Abbreviations: PANSS, positive and negative syndrome scale; SD, standard deviation; SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form health survey; GAF, global assessment of functioning scale.
  2. 1Univariate descriptive statistic comparisons, using unpaired t-tests for numeric data (confirming with Wilcoxon rank-sum test, if non-normality was suspected) or chi-square tests (or Fisher's exact test, for small numbers) for categorical data.
  3. 2Univariate survival comparisons, using Cox proportional hazards models with only the one single variable.