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Table 4 Odds ratios of depression in 2000 for variables in 1993.

From: Health status and lifestyle factors as predictors of depression in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults: a seven-year follow-up of the Komo-Ise cohort study

 

Men

Women

Variable

Model 1

Model 2

Model 1

Model 2

 

OR

(95% CI)

OR

(95% CI)

OR

(95% CI)

OR

(95% CI)

Health status

        

Perceived health status

        

   Excellent, good, fair

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   Poor, very poor

3.09b

(1.54-6.18)

2.02

(0.88-4.65)

3.32b

(1.80-6.14)

2.39a

(1.09-5.24)

Chronic disease

        

   No

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   Yes

2.66b

(1.54-4.57)

2.19a

(1.16-4.14)

2.38b

(1.48-3.82)

1.52

(0.86-2.70)

Body mass index

        

   18.5-25

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   <18.5

1.60

(0.49-5.26)

1.40

(0.39-4.94)

1.31

(0.46-3.68)

1.23

(0.37-4.13)

   25

0.92

(0.50-1.72)

0.62

(0.28-1.36)

1.89b

(1.17-3.08)

1.90a

(1.08-3.33)

Lifestyle

        

Hours of sleep

        

   6-9 hours

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   <6 hours

1.72

(0.53-5.58)

1.12

(0.25-4.95)

1.66

(0.75-3.66)

1.48

(0.57-3.88)

   9 hours <

2.00

(0.61-6.63)

2.02

(0.43-9.50)

3.78a

(1.13-12.70)

1.13

(0.14-8.98)

Smoking

        

   Never

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   Past

0.88

(0.40-1.94)

0.84

(0.34-2.09)

1.67

(0.40-6.99)

2.65

(0.61-11.59)

   Current

1.01

(0.55-1.83)

1.01

(0.50-2.05)

2.04a

(1.08-3.85)

2.09

(0.97-4.51)

Alcohol consumption

        

   Never

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   Light

0.46

(0.25-0.86)

0.54

(0.26-1.13)

0.79

(0.49-1.28)

0.67

(0.37-1.19)

   Heavy

0.81

(0.42-1.55)

0.99

(0.46-2.11)

1.01

(0.24-4.24)

0.39

(0.05-3.08)

Physical activity

        

   Often, sometimes

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

1.00

 

   Never

2.39b

(1.36-4.21)

2.58b

(1.31-5.05)

1.59

(0.96-2.61)

1.23

(0.69-2.21)

  1. Model 1 adjusted for age (5-year age categories). Model 2 adjusted for age (5-year age categories), area (rural/urban), education (compulsory education, high school and vocational or special school/junior college and college or higher), occupation (any kind of occupation/no occupation), social network (marriage; married/unmarried, household; more than 2/living alone, neighborhood; yes/no, participation; yes/no, friends; yes/no).
  2. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval. a...P < 0.05, b...p < 0.01.