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Table 4 Odds ratios of depression in 2000 for variables in 1993.

From: Health status and lifestyle factors as predictors of depression in middle-aged and elderly Japanese adults: a seven-year follow-up of the Komo-Ise cohort study

  Men Women
Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Health status         
Perceived health status         
   Excellent, good, fair 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Poor, very poor 3.09b (1.54-6.18) 2.02 (0.88-4.65) 3.32b (1.80-6.14) 2.39a (1.09-5.24)
Chronic disease         
   No 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Yes 2.66b (1.54-4.57) 2.19a (1.16-4.14) 2.38b (1.48-3.82) 1.52 (0.86-2.70)
Body mass index         
   18.5-25 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   <18.5 1.60 (0.49-5.26) 1.40 (0.39-4.94) 1.31 (0.46-3.68) 1.23 (0.37-4.13)
   25 0.92 (0.50-1.72) 0.62 (0.28-1.36) 1.89b (1.17-3.08) 1.90a (1.08-3.33)
Lifestyle         
Hours of sleep         
   6-9 hours 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   <6 hours 1.72 (0.53-5.58) 1.12 (0.25-4.95) 1.66 (0.75-3.66) 1.48 (0.57-3.88)
   9 hours < 2.00 (0.61-6.63) 2.02 (0.43-9.50) 3.78a (1.13-12.70) 1.13 (0.14-8.98)
Smoking         
   Never 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Past 0.88 (0.40-1.94) 0.84 (0.34-2.09) 1.67 (0.40-6.99) 2.65 (0.61-11.59)
   Current 1.01 (0.55-1.83) 1.01 (0.50-2.05) 2.04a (1.08-3.85) 2.09 (0.97-4.51)
Alcohol consumption         
   Never 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Light 0.46 (0.25-0.86) 0.54 (0.26-1.13) 0.79 (0.49-1.28) 0.67 (0.37-1.19)
   Heavy 0.81 (0.42-1.55) 0.99 (0.46-2.11) 1.01 (0.24-4.24) 0.39 (0.05-3.08)
Physical activity         
   Often, sometimes 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
   Never 2.39b (1.36-4.21) 2.58b (1.31-5.05) 1.59 (0.96-2.61) 1.23 (0.69-2.21)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age (5-year age categories). Model 2 adjusted for age (5-year age categories), area (rural/urban), education (compulsory education, high school and vocational or special school/junior college and college or higher), occupation (any kind of occupation/no occupation), social network (marriage; married/unmarried, household; more than 2/living alone, neighborhood; yes/no, participation; yes/no, friends; yes/no).
  2. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval. a...P < 0.05, b...p < 0.01.