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Table 1 Comparison of EMPowerplus ingredients with Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)

From: Systematic review of safety and tolerability of a complex micronutrient formula used in mental health

  Amount in a typical
therapeutic dose,
15 capsules daily
UL
Vitamin A 5,760 IU 10,000 IU
Vitamin C 600 mg 2,000 mg
Vitamin D 1,440 IU 2,000 IU
Vitamin E 360 IU 1,500 IU
Vitamin B1 18 mg none set
Vitamin B2 13.5 mg none set
a Vitamin B3 90 mg 35 mg
Vitamin B5 21.6 mg none set
Vitamin B6 36 mg 100 mg
b Folate 1,440 mcg 1,000 mcg
Vitamin B-12 900 mcg none set
Vitamin H 1,080 mcg none set
Calcium 1,320 mg 2,500 mg
Phosphorous 840 mg 4,000 mg
c Magnesium 600 mg 350 mg
Potassium 240 mg none set
Iodine 204 mcg 1,100 mcg
d Zinc 48 mg 40 mg
Selenium 204 mcg 400 mcg
Copper 7.2 mg 10 mg
Manganese 9.6 mg 11 mg
Chromium 624 mcg none set
Molybdenum 144 mcg 2,000 mcg
Iron 13.74 mg 45 mg
  1. Plus a proprietary formula of dl-phenylalanine, glutamine, citrus bioflavonoids, grape seed extract, choline bitartrate, inositol, ginkgo biloba, methionine, germanium sesquioxide, boron, vanadium, nickel.
  2. For four ingredients, the amount in the full daily dose exceeds the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) set by the National Academy of Sciences:
  3. a The B3 (niacinamide) UL was set at 35 mg to prevent skin flushing, and is not based on a safety concern. The EMP+ B3 exceeds that UL, but there have been no reports of skin flushing problems in people taking this formula up to this point.
  4. b The folate UL was set at 1 mg to prevent masking a vitamin B12 deficiency. But of course, vitamin B12 deficiencies are unlikely to occur in someone taking this formula, because of the B12 content.
  5. c The magnesium UL of 350 mg was set because of concerns regarding diarrhea, but there do not appear to be any safety concerns.
  6. d The zinc UL is set at 40 mg, but the primary safety concern is that higher levels may result in an imbalance of copper. This is unlikely to occur in someone taking this formula, because of the copper content.