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Table 2 Prevalence of depression (WHO-5 or PHQ-9) in Sylheti and Bengali speakers with type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

Category Audio methodb(n = 417) Standard Assisted methodc(n = 417) Sylheti speakers (n = 189) Bengali speakers (n = 228) Female (n = 206) Male (n = 211)
PHQ-9 score (Mean ± SD) 4.1 ± 6.1 4.3 ± 6.2 4.2 ± 6.4 4.0 ± 5.9 5.1 ± 6.3 3.1 ± 5.8
% (n) Depression (sore ≥5-27) 34(142) 33 (137) 36.5 (69) 32 (73) 43 (89) a 25 (53)
% (n) PHQ-9 score 10 or above 16.5 (69) 15.5 (65) 18.5 (35) 14.9 (34) 21.8 (45) a 11.4 (24)
WHO-5 score (Mean ± SD) 54 ± 26 52 ± 27 53 ± 27 56 ± 25 46 ± 23 63 ± 28
% (n) WHO-5 < 52 (poor well-being) d 36 (151) 38 (158) 38.6 (73) 34 (78) 46.6 (96) a 26 (55)
% (n) WHO-5 ≤ 28 (depressive affect) 17.5 (73) 16.8 (70) 19 (36) 16 (37) 22.8 (47) a 12 (26)
  1. ap < 0.01comparing female and male with Type 2 diabetes.
  2. bAudio method (either Bengali or Sylheti version), with the participant listening to an audio recording of questions in the appropriate language/dialect, and responding independently using the colour-coded scoring system.
  3. cStandard assisted method (Bengali version), with questions read out by the researcher and answered by the participant with the researcher completing the questionnaire for them.
  4. dusing the alternative cut-off value WHO-5 < 50 resulted in the same percentages.