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Table 3 Univariable regression examining the associations between demographic and clinical factors and depression symptoms (PHO-9 score ≥10 and WHO-5 score ≤ 28)

From: Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

Variables PHQ-9 WHO-5
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Current Age (r = lowest value, 41 years) 1.8 (1.3-2.2) b 1.7 (1.0-2.5) b
Female (r = male) 3.4 (2.2-5.4) b 2.7 (2.0-3.9) b
Schooling in year (r = 0) 0.7 (0.5-1.6) c 0.6 (0.4-1.5) c
Monthly Income > 6000 Taka (r = ≤ 6000 Taka) a 0.4 (0.3-0.9)b 0.5 (0.3-1.1) b
Urban resident (r = rural) 1.6 (1.0-2.8) c 1.5 (0.9-4.2) c
Treatment Centre (r = BADAS Hospital Sylhet) 1.3 (0.7-3.8) 1.2 (0.6-3.5)
Sylheti Speaker (r = Bengali speaker) 1.1 (0.6-2.4) 1.0 (0.5-3.1)
Method of data collection (r = audio collection method) 1.0 (0.5-2.3) 1.1 (0.6-3.3)
Treatment intensity   
Insulin (r = oral medication + diet) 1.4 (1.0-2.8) c 1.5 (1.1-3.2) c
Insulin + oral medication (r = oral medication + diet) 1.7 (1.0-2.9) c 1.8 (1.0-3.4) c
Duration of Medication (r = lowest value, 2 years) 1.1 (0.7-3.3) 1.2 (0.6-3.8)
Number of medication (r = lowest number, 3 medicines) 1.5 (0.8-2.2) c 1.4 (0.8-2.4) c
Co-morbidity   
Cardiovascular Disease (r = no co-morbidity) 1.8 (1.2-2.5) b 2.1 (1.5-3.2) b
Hypertension (r = no co-morbidity) 1.2 (0.5-3.9) 1.1 (0.5-3.7)
Kidney/eye problem/nephropathy (r = no co-morbidity) 1.0 (0.5-3.4) 1.0 (0.6-3.5)
Number of co-morbidity (r = 0) 2.2 (1.4-3.5) b 2.4 (1.5-3.4) b
BMI (r = lowest value, 21.3 g/cm2) 0.7 (0.4-1.1) c 0.6 (0.3-1.2) c
FBS level (r = lowest value, 97.3 mg/dl) 1.8 (1.1-2.5) b 1.6 (1.1-3.1) b
HbA1c level (r = lowest value, 40 mmol/mol) 2.1 (1.7-2.8) b 2.4 (1.5-3.1) b
  1. aOne US$ = 84 Bangladeshi Taka.
  2. bP value <0.01.
  3. cP value <0.05; r = reference category.
  4. WHO-5 World Health Organization-5 Well Being Index.
  5. PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionairre-9.
  6. OR odds ratio.
  7. CI confidence interval.