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Table 4 Associations between disaster exposure (sum-score) and symptoms of ptsd at waves 2 and 3 a

From: Disaster exposure as a risk factor for mental health problems, eighteen months, four and ten years post-disaster – a longitudinal study

  Symptoms of PTSD at wave 2 Symptoms of PTSD at wave 3
  Model 1: Model 2: Model 1: Model 2: Model 3:
  disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors Disaster-related factors and symptoms distress and PTSD at wave 1 Disaster-related factors and symptoms of distress and PTSD at waves 1 and 2
  B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P B SE P
Intercept −23.56 4.06 < .01 −17.98 3.71 < .01 −32.63 4.13 < .05 −28.28 3.84 < .01 −20.59 3.67 < .05
Degree of disaster exposure 2.23 0.19 < .001 0.63 0.21 < .01 2.19 0.20 < .01 0.87 0.19 < .01 0.53 0.16 <.05
Symptoms of distress at wave 1     0.1 0.01 < .01     0.09 0.01 < .05 0.02 0.01 n.s.
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 1     0.24 0.04 < .01     0.19 0.05 < .01 0.07 0.04 n.s.
Symptoms of distress at wave 2              0.03 0.01 < .05
Symptoms of PTSD at wave 2              0.51 0.04 < .05
  1. aMultiple regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, employment status, educational level, smoking/non-smoking and number of chronic diseases. N.s. = not significant.
  2. Model 1, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.245, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.199, 0.292].
  3. Model 2, wave 2: Pooled R-Squared = 0.403, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.356, 0.449].
  4. Model 1, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.307, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.246, 0.368].
  5. Model 2, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.413, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.352, 0.473].
  6. Model 3, wave 3: Pooled R-Squared = 0.594, Pooled R-Squared C.I. = [0.541, 0.643].