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Table 3 Prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain: subgroup meta-analysis and heterogeneity analysis

From: Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Characteristics Observations* (N) Prevalence (%) 95% CI I2 P value
Origin of sample      
  School 11 6.7 4.2-9.1 97.0% < 0.001
  General population 5 7.2 4.0-10.5 88.8% < 0.001
Geographic location      
  North/Northeast 8 7.6 3.8-11.4 97.9% < 0.001
  South 2 4.6 3.5-5.7 38.4% 0.203
  East 6 6.6 4.3-8.9 86.7% < 0.001
Sample size      
  < 600 subjects 9 6.1 3.7-8.4 91.9% < 0.001
  > 600 subjects 7 7.7 5.0-10.4 96.4% < 0.001
Population age      
  Children (under 12 years) 10 7.0 4.1-9.9 96.0% < 0.001
  Children and adolescent (under 17 years) 6 6.6 3.9-9.3 95.6% < 0.001
Peer reviewed journal      
  Yes 12 6.7 4.4-8.9 95.9% < 0.001
  No 4 7.3 2.7-12.0 96.9% < 0.001
Reference to a diagnostic criterion      
  DSM-III-R 8 6.1 4.5-7.7 81.4% < 0.001
  DSM-IV 3 9.9 4.6-15.2 94.8% < 0.001
  None or not explicit 5 5.8 1.5-10.0 98.1% < 0.001
Impairment criterion      
  Yes 9 8.3 5.5-11.0 92.0% < 0.001
  No 7 5.2 2.5-7.9 97.2% < 0.001
Clinical interview      
  Yes 9 6.4 4.9-7.9 82.2% < 0.001
  No 7 7.0 3.0-10.9 98.1% < 0.001
Number of stages of evaluation      
  One 7 7.5 3.3-11.7 98.1% < 0.001
  Two 9 6.0 4.6-7.4 82.8% < 0.001
Number of informants      
  One 2 13.0 11.1-14.9 65.0% 0.091
  Two 13 5.5 4.1-6.9 90.7% < 0.001
  Three 1 9.0 5.2-12.8 - -
Children are among the informants      
  Yes 5 7.6 4.1-11.2 89.4% < 0.001
  No 11 6.5 4.1-8.9 97.0% < 0.001
Teachers are the sole informants      
  Yes 2 13.0 11.1-14.9 65.0% 0.091
  No 14 5.7 4.3-7.1 90.4% < 0.001
  1. *Note: Data set correspond to individual observations (n=16) because the study by Gómez-Beneyto contributed to analyses with three estimates (for people of 8, 11 and 15 year-old each).