Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors related to current sleeping problems and high mental distress

From: Is there a negative impact of winter on mental distress and sleeping problems in the subarctic: The Tromsø Study

  Current sleeping problems High mental distress
OR1 SE z p OR1 SE z p
Male 2     Ns3 0.66 0.07 −3.84 <0.001
Age 4     Ns3 0.98 0.005 −4.72 <0.001
Age*Sex 5 0.99 0.002 −5.36 <0.001     Ns3
Education 6 1.72 0.19 4.99 <0.001     Ns3
Living with spouse 7     Ns3 0.47 0.05 −6.77 <0.001
Smoker 8     Ns3     Ns3
Alcohol frequency 9     Ns3     Ns3
Alcohol units 10     Ns3     Ns3
Exercise 11     Ns3     Ns3
Season 12 1.86 0.20 5.91 <0.001     Ns3
Painkillers 13     Ns3 1.94 0.23 5.57 <0.001
Health 14 0.70 0.08 −3.01 0.003 0.18 0.02 −15.57 <0.001
Coping 15     Ns3     Ns3
High mental distress 16 4.95 0.68 11.67 <0.001 - - - -
Sleeping problems - - - - 4.62 0.64 11.12 <0.001
Constant 0.05 0.01 −22.46 <0.001 0.94 0.27 −0.21 0.835
  1. The table shows the results of stepwise logistic regression with “more sleeping problems than usual during the last couple of weeks” and HSCL-10≥1.85 as dependent variables.
  2. 1Odds ratio.
  3. 2Males compared to females.
  4. 3Not significant.
  5. 4Change per year of age.
  6. 5Interaction variable “Age*Sex”.
  7. 6Educational level: Primary school vs. education beyond primary school.
  8. 7Living with spouse compared to living alone.
  9. 8Current smoking compared to not smoking.
  10. 9Alcohol frequency: 2–3 times per month or more compared to monthly or less.
  11. 101-4 units of alcohol per drinking episode compared to 5 units or more.
  12. 11Exercise 2 hours per week or more, compared to once per week or less.
  13. 12Change between seasons: Winter compared to summer.
  14. 13Use of any kind of painkillers weekly or more in the last four weeks.
  15. 14General considering of own health (excellent, good, neither good nor bad, bad, very bad).
  16. 15Felt unable to cope with difficulties during the past couple of weeks (not at all, no more than usual, rather more than usual, much more than usual).
  17. 16HSCL10 score≥1.85.