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Table 4 Subjective sleep measures; Mean (SD), Change values and Effect Sizes

From: Efficacy of a behavioral self-help treatment with or without therapist guidance for co-morbid and primary insomnia -a randomized controlled trial

  Pre Post Fu3 Change Pre to Post Change Pre to Fu3
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (95% CI) Effect size (d)a Mean (95% CI) Effect size (d)
Insomnia Severity Index        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 17.5 (3.5) 7.6 (4.5) 8.4 (5.1) -9.9 (-11.3 to -8.5) -2.46 -9.1 (-10.7 to -7.5) -2.08
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 16.6 (3.8) 11.2 (4.2) 10.4 (4.8) -5.3 (-6.6 to -4.0) -1.35 -6.2 (-7.5 to -4.8) -1.43
   Waiting list control group (n = 44) 16.7 (3.7) 15.6 (4.7) 14.2 (4.7) -1.1 (-2.2 to 0.0) -0.26 -2.5 (-3.5 to -1.5) -0.59
Sleep Related Behaviours Questionnaire        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 83.6 (14.5) 57.8 (16.4) 58.5 (16.0) -25.8 (-30.4 to -21.2) -1.67 -25.1 (-29.8 to -20.8) -1.64
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 77.1 (12.8) 66.6 (16.0) 61.5 (17.5) -10.5 (-14.1 to -6.9) -0.72 -15.6 (-20.5 to -10.7) -1.02
   Waiting list control group (n = 44) 83.4 (12.8) 79.5 (13.8) 76.9 (13.6) -3.9 (-6.9 to -0.9) -0.29 -6.5 (-9.4 to -3.5) -0.49
Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 125.2 (31.3) 58.0 (30.8) -* -67.2 (-77.0 to -57.4) -2.17 - * - *
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 116.0 (31.8) 85.8 (37.0) - -30.1 (-41.4 to -18.9) -0.88 - -
   Waiting list control group (n = 44) 133.5 (31.1) 122.7 (30.7) - -10.8 (-16.2 to -5.4) -0.35 - -
Bed Time Stress b        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 1.5 (1.1) 0.49 (0.74) 0.55 (0.88) -1.03 (-1.34 to -0.72) -1.08 -0.97 (-1.29 to -0.64) -0.95
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 0.80 (0.92) 0.68 (0.85) 0.52 (0.74) -0.12 (-0.34 to 0.10) -0.14 -0.28 (-0.51 to -0.06) -0.36
   Waiting list control group (n = 43) 1.2 (1.1) 1.1 (1.1) 1.1 (1.1) -0.05 (-0.33 to 0.22) -0.09 -0.08 (-0.33 to 0.16) -0.09
Sleep Quality c        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 2.6 (0.66) 3.6 (0.65) 3.5 (0.71) 1.0 (0.75 to 1.2) 1.53 0.93 (0.68 to 1.2) 1.31
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 2.6 (0.53) 3.1 (0.57) 3.1 (0.65) 0.57 (0.39 to 0.75) 0.91 0.53 (0.32 to 0.75) 0.84
   Waiting list control group (n = 43) 2.9 (0.56) 3.0 (0.66) 3.1 (0.61) 0.11 (-0.07 to 0.28) 0.16 0.20 (0.03 to 0.36) 0.34
  1. Abbreviations: Pre, Pre-treatment assessment; Post, Post-treatment assessment; Fu3, 3-month follow-up assessment,
  2. a Effect sizes calculated within groups, pre-post, and pre-fu3, with pooled SDs. (A negative effect size represents a decrease in the measure, a positive effect size an increase.)
  3. b Scored on a scale 0-5, with 0 indicating no stress at all, and 5 indicating very high stress
  4. c Scored on a scale 1-5, with 1 indicating very poor sleep quality, and 5 indicating very good sleep quality
  5. * DBAS-data missing from 3-month follow-up