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Table 6 Day time functioning and psychological distress; Mean (SD), Change values and Effect sizes

From: Efficacy of a behavioral self-help treatment with or without therapist guidance for co-morbid and primary insomnia -a randomized controlled trial

  Pre Post Fu3 Change Pre-Post Change Pre-Fu3
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (95% CI) Effect size (d)a Mean (95% CI) Effect size (d) a
Positive Day Time Ratings        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 2.5 (0.79) 3.2 (0.70) 3.1 (0.74) 0.69 (0.46 to 0.92) 0.94 0.58 (0.34 to 0.82) 0.78
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 2.6 (0.65) 3.0 (0.72) 3.0 (0.84) 0.38 (0.19 to 0.58) 0.58 0.44 (0.21 to 0.67) 0.58
   Waiting list control (n = 43) 2.6 (0.73) 2.8 (0.75) 2.7 (0.76) 0.17 (-0.02 to 0.36) 0.27 0.13 (-0.07 to 0.32) 0.13
Day Time Fatigue (DTF)        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 2.8 (0.98) 1.5 (1.0) 1.8 (1.1) -1.23 (-1.54 to -0.91) -1.31 -0.98 (-1.3 to -0.66) -0.96
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 2.7 (0.82) 2.2 (0.99) 2.1 (0.94) -0.49 (-0.81 to -0.17) -0.55 -0.61 (-0.92 to -0.31) -0.68
   Waiting list control (n = 43) 2.7 (0.82) 2.4 (0.89) 2.6 (1.0) -0.28 (-0.50 to -0.05) -0.35 -0.14 (-0.42 to 0.13) -0.11
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 17.4 (7.4) 13.1 (5.7) 13.2 (5.9) -4.3 (-6.0 to -2.6) -0.65 -4.2 (-6.1 to -2.3) -0.63
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 18.8 (6.2) 16.1 (7.1) 15.1 (7.4) -2.7 (-4.2 to -1.1) -0.41 -3.6 (-5.2 to -2.0) -0.54
   Waiting list control (n = 44) 19.0 (6.8) 17.2 (6.3) 17.3 (7.2) -1.8 (-3.0 to -0.6) -0.27 -1.7 (-3.3 to -0.2) -0.24
CORE-OM        
   Bibliotherapy with support (n = 44) 37.0 (17.7) 24.4 (14.0) 27.2 (17.0) -12.5 (-17.0 to -8.0) -0.79 -9.7 (-14.7 to -4.7) -0.56
   Bibliotherapy (n = 45) 36.7 (15.8) 32.5 (16.1) 29.6 (15.4) -4.2 (-8.5 to 0.1) -0.26 -7.1 (-11.6 to -2.7) -0.46
   Waiting list control (n = 44) 41.7 (15.6) 36.2 (15.3) 36.0 (18.4) -5.5 (-8.9 to-2.0) -0.36 -5.7 (-9.6 to -1.7) -0.33
  1. Abbreviations: Pre, Pre-treatment assessment; Post, Post-treatment assessment; Fu3, 3-month follow-up assessment; CORE-OM, The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure
  2. a Effect sizes calculated within groups, pre-post, and pre-fu3, with pooled SDs. (A negative effect size represents a decrease in the measure, a positive effect size an increase.)