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Table 2 Relative risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multinomial regression analysis for having non-melancholic or melancholic depressive symptoms

From: Association between vitamin b12 levels and melancholic depressive symptoms: a Finnish population-based study

Variables NmDS versus BDI < 10 RRR (95% CI) P-value MDS versus BDI < 10 RRR (95% CI) P-value
Vitamin B12 tertiles*     
I 1 (reference) 0.28# 1 (reference) <0.001#
II 1.01 (0.72 to 1.41)   1.90 (1.21 to 3.22)  
III 1.20 (0.86 to 1.66)   2.75 (1.66 to 4.56)  
Male sex 0.59 (0.44 to 0.79) <0.001 0.82 (0.54 to 1.23) 0.34
Age 1.02 (1.00 to 1.04) 0.041 1.02 (1.00 to 1.05) 0.091
BMI 1.02 (1.00 to 1.05) 0.11 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02) 0.32
Smoking 1.23 (0.88 to 1.71) 0.23 1.41 (0.91 to 2.20) 0.13
Using alcohol 1.09 (0.81 to 1.45) 0.59 0.84 (0.56 to 1.26) 0.39
LTPA   <0.001#   0.006#
I 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
II 0.50 (0.37 to 0.68)   0.42 (0.27 to 0.64)  
III 0.24 (0.15 to 0.39)   0.43 (0.24 to 0.76)  
Years of education 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02) 0.24 1.00 (0.95 to 1.06) 0.99
Living alone 1.29 (0.95 to 1.75) 0.10 1.93 (1.30 to 2.88) 0.001
Energy intake 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) 0.90 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) 0.74
Use of antidepressive medication 5.51 (3.55 to 8.54) <0.001 9.45 (5.63 to 15.86) <0.001
Chronic diseases sum index 1.41 (1.26 to 1.59) <0.001 1.21 (1.02 to 1.45) 0.031
  1. * Gender specific tertiles: Male I > 340 pmol/L, II = 255–340 pmol/L, III < 255 pmol/L;
  2. Female I > 380 pmol/L, II = 280–379 pmol/L, III = <280 pmol/L.
  3. # P for linearity.
  4. RRR = relative risk ratio.
  5. BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.
  6. NmDS = non-melancholic depressive symptoms.
  7. MDS = melancholic depressive symptoms.
  8. BMI = body mass index.
  9. LTPA = leisure-time physical activity.