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Table 4 Summary of associations between traditional dietary patterns and depression, presented by year of publication, and author

From: The association between diet quality, dietary patterns and depression in adults: a systematic review

Author, country, year Type of diet Adjusted for confounders Results (G = group, T = tertile, C = category, Q = quartile,) p for trend Summary of associations
Cohort      
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2009 [36] Mediterranean Age, sex, smoking, BMI, physical activity, energy intake, employment C1: Referent <0.001 Increased adherence to Mediterranean diet associated with reduced odds of self-reported depression
C2: 0.74 (0.57, 0.98)
C3: 0.66 (0.50, 0.86)
C4: 0.49 (0.36, 0.67)
C5: 0.58 (0.44, 0.77)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2009 [36] Mediterranean Age, sex, smoking, BMI, physical activity, energy intake, employment, excluding participants with early depression C1: Referent <0.001 Increased adherence to Mediterranean diet associated with reduced odds of self-reported depression
C2: 0.73 (0.50, 1.06)
C3: 0.56 (0.38, 0.83)
C4: 0.42 (0.27, 0.66)
C5: 0.50 (0.33, 0.74)
Sanchez-Villegas et al., Spain, 2009 [36] Mediterranean Age, sex, smoking, BMI, physical activity, energy intake, employment, excluding participants using antidepressant medication during follow up without physician diagnosis C1: Referent 0.007 Increased adherence to Mediterranean diet associated with reduced odds of self-reported depression
C2: 0.79 (0.57, 1.09)
C3: 0.67 (0.48, 0.93)
C4: 0.56 (0.39, 0.80)
C5: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96)
Okubu et al., Japan, 2011 [23] Japanese Age, gestation, parity, smoking, change in diet in preceding month, family structure, occupation, family income, education, season, BMI, time of delivery, medical problems during pregnancy, sex and birth weight of baby Q1: Referent 0.59 No association
Q2: 0.56 (0.30, 1.02)
Q3: 1.14 (0.66, 1.96)
Q4: 0.96 (0.56, 1.64)
Cross-sectional      
Mamplekou, Mediterranean Islands, 2010 [28] Mediterranean Age, sex, BMI, living alone, financial status, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, education, alcohol, retired, urban/rural area G1: 1.00 (ref) NS* No association
G2: 1.03 (0.98–1.09)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Japanese Age, sex, workplace T1: Referent <0.001 Increased adherence to Japanese diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.90 (0.57, 1.41)
T3: 0.39 (0.23, 0.67)
Nanri et al., Japan, 2010 [22] Japanese Age, sex, workplace, marital status, BMI, job position, physical activity, smoking, co-morbidities, total energy intake T1: Referent 0.006 Increased adherence to Japanese diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms
T2: 0.99 (0.62, 1.59)
T3: 0.44 (0.25, 0.78)
Jacka et al., Norway, 2011 [8] Norwegian Age, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, energy consumption Males:   Increased adherence to Norwegian diet associated with reduced odds of depressive symptoms for males
C1: Referent  
C2: 0.77 (0.61, 0.96) 0.02
Females:   No association for females
C1: Referent  
C2: 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 0.51
  1. * Data not provided, NS not significant.
  2. Results presented as Odds Ratio (OR) or Hazards Ratio (HR) and (95% CI), except where indicated by superscripts: beta regression coefficients (± SE), or α mean (±SE).