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Table 1 Prevalence of trauma exposure in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (N = 4315)

From: Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study

Event type Prevalence % SE Mean no. of occurrencesa SE Proportion of traumas in populationb SE
War events 12.2 0.87 1.5 0.06 5.8 0.54
 Combat 2.6 0.35 1 0 0.8 0.1
 Relief worker 2.1 0.33 1 0 0.7 0.1
 Civilian in war zone 3.6 0.67 1 0 1.1 0.21
 Civilian in region of terror 7.1 0.73 1 0 2.2 0.23
 Refugee 1.6 0.28 1 0 0.5 0.09
 Purposely injured, tortured, or killed someone 0.9 0.17 1.5 0.16 0.5 0.09
Physical violence 37.6 0.98 1.8 0.04 20.9 0.60
 Beaten up by caregiver 12 0.82 1 0 3.8 0.26
 Beaten up by partner 7.9 0.48 1 0 2.5 0.14
 Beaten up by someone else 12.4 0.61 1.5 0.06 5.9 0.34
 Mugged or threatened with a weapon 18.3 0.79 1.4 0.04 8.4 0.36
 Kidnapped 1.2 0.21 1 0 0.4 0.07
Sexual violence 7.6 0.56 1.8 0.08 4.4 0.34
 Raped 2.1 0.27 1.3 0.07 0.9 0.13
 Sexually assaulted 1.6 0.24 1.8 0.17 0.9 0.17
 Stalked 4.5 0.43 1.9 0.11 2.7 0.25
Accidents 31.9 1.06 1.9 0.05 19.6 0.57
 Toxic chemical exposure 3.2 0.40 2.3 0.19 2.3 0.38
 Automobile accident 13.2 0.64 1.2 0.03 5.1 0.24
 Other life threatening accident 5.6 0.42 1.4 0.07 2.5 0.25
 Natural disaster 4.1 0.51 1.3 0.06 1.7 0.21
 Man-made disaster 2.8 0.27 1.3 0.12 1.2 0.15
 Life-threatening illness 13.2 0.76 1.6 0.05 6.8 0.36
Unexpected death of loved one 39.2 1.22 1.6 0.04 19.6 0.57
Network events 14.1 0.74 1.6 0.07 6.9 0.47
 Child with serious illness 8.1 0.51 1.4 0.05 3.5 0.27
 Traumatic event to loved one 5.8 0.41 1.4 0.09 2.5 0.25
 Accidentally caused serious injury or death 1.9 0.28 1.6 0.26 1 0.22
Witnessing 29.5 1.29 2.2 0.09 20.5 0.96
 Witnessed death/dead body, saw someone hurt 28.5 1.29 2.0 0.07 18.1 0.89
 Saw atrocities 3.9 0.51 1.9 0.15 2.4 0.37
Others 6.4 0.52 1.1 0.02 2.2 0.18
 Some other event 3.0 0.37 1 0 0.9 0.12
 Private event 3.9 0.40 1 0 1.2 0.13
Total with any event 73.8 1.15 4.3 0.11 100 0
  1. aMean number of occurrences among respondents with any PTE vary significantly across the eight PTE classes (χ5 = 489.8, p < .001 as well as across the 28 individual PTE types (χ18 = 1698, p < .001). bEvents in this class as percentage of all traumatic events.