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Table 4 Effect sizes and confidence intervals of primary and secondary outcomes

From: Internet-based interventions for eating disorders in adults: a systematic review

   Ljotsson et al. [16] Johnston et al. [15] Carrard et al. [12] Sanchez-Ortiz et al. [19] Fernandez-Aranda et al. [14] Carrard et al. [13] Ruwaard et al. [18]
Primary outcome         
Binge episodes ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.98 (0.58-1.38)   1.05 (0.65-1.45) 0.75 (0.39-1.11)   0.90 (0.40-1.40) 1.05 (0.63-1.47)
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.52 (0.04-1.00)   0.52 (0.06-0.98) 0.35 (-0.10-0.80) 0.49 0.20 (-0.41-0.81) 0.43 (-0.04-0.90)
Purging ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.41 (0.06-0.76)    0. 56 (0. 22- 0. 90)    0. 77 (0. 39- 1. 15)
ESbetween(CI 95%) 1.63 (1.08-2.18)    0.27 (-0.18-0.72)    0.45 (-0.02-0.92)
Vomiting ESwithin(CI 95%)     0.46 (0.12-0.80)    
ESbetween(CI 95%)     0.29 (-0.16-0.74) 0. 78   
Secondary Outcome         
EDE-Q         
Restraint ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.32 (-0.02-0.66)   0.47 (0.13-0.81) 1.26 (0.83-1.69)   0.23 (-0.19-0.65)  
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.26 (-0.21-0.73)   0.14 (-0.32-0.60) 0.79 (0.32-1.26)   0.24 (-0.37-0.85)  
Eating concern ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.86 (0.47-1.25)    1.05 (0.65-1.45)   0.78 (0.30-1.26)  
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.99 (0.49-1.49)    0.84 (0.37-1.31)   0.39 (-0.22-1.00)  
Shape concern ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.51 (0.16-0.86)   0.89 (0.51-1.27) 1.02 (0.63-1.41)   1.02 (0.50-1.54)  
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.92 (0.42-1.42)   0.28 (-0.18-0.74) 1.05 (0.57-1.53)   0.58 (-0.04-1.20)  
Weight concern ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.78 (0.40-1.16)    0.73 (0.37-1.09)   1.11 (0.57-1.65)  
ESbetween(CI 95%) 1.10 (0.59-1.61)    0.79 (0.32-1.26)   0.18 (-0.43-0.79)  
Total ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.71 (0.34-1.08)   1.18 (0.76-1.60) 1.21 (0.79-1.63)   0.79 (0.31-1.27) 1. 18 (0. 75- 1. 61)
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 96 (0. 46- 1. 46)   0.45 (-0.01-0.91) 1. 09 (0. 61- 1. 57)   0.32 (-0.29-0.93) 0.50 (0.02-0.98)
EDI (-2)         
Drive for thinness ESwithin(CI 95%) 0. 55 (0. 19- 0. 91)   0. 62 (0. 27- 0. 97)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 99 (0. 49- 1. 49)   0. 48 (0. 02- 0. 94)   0.25   
Body dissatisfaction ESwithin(CI 95%) 0. 39 (0. 05- 0. 73)   0. 60 (0. 25- 0. 95)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 76 (0. 27- 1. 25)   0.05 (-0.41-0.51)   0.16   
Interoceptive awareness ESwithin(CI 95%) 0. 70 (0. 33- 1. 07)   0. 53 (0. 18- 0. 88)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 88 (0. 39- 1. 37)   0. 46 (0. 00- 0. 92)   0.03   
Bulimia ESwithin(CI 95%) 0. 79 (0. 41- 1. 17)   1. 56 (1. 08- 2. 04)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 94 (0. 44- 1. 44)   1. 08 (0. 59- 1. 57)   0.54   
Interpersonal distrust ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.02 (-0.31-0.35)   0.21 (-0.12-0.54)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.00 (-0.47-0.47)   0.17 (-0.29-0.63)   0.32   
Ineffectiveness ESwithin(CI 95%) 0. 47 (0. 12- 0. 82)   0. 36 (0. 03- 0. 69)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0. 57 (0. 09- 1. 05)   0.33 (-0.13-0.79)   0.05   
Maturity fears ESwithin(CI 95%)    0.23 (-0.10-0.56)     
ESbetween(CI 95%)    0.15 (-0.31-0.61)   0. 63   
Perfectionism ESwithin(CI 95%) 0.21 (-0.13-0.55)   0.12 (-0.20-0.44)     
ESbetween(CI 95%) 0.22 (-0.25-0.69)   0.19 (-0.27-0.65)   0.13   
Impulse regulation ESwithin(CI 95%)    0. 51 (0. 17- 0. 85)     
ESbetween(CI 95%)    0.31 (-0.15-0.77)     
Social insecurity ESwithin(CI 95%)    0. 64 (0. 29- 0. 99)     
ESbetween(CI 95%)    0.27 (-0.19-0.73)     
Total ESbetween(CI 95%)      0.37   
BITE         
Severity ESwithin(CI 95%)   0.14 (-0.14-0.42)      
ESbetween(CI 95%)   0.28 (-0.13-0.69)      
Symptom ESwithin(CI 95%)   0.10 (-0.18-0.38)      
ESbetween(CI 95%)   0.03 (-0.37-0.43)      
Total ESwithin(CI 95%)   0.14 (-0.14-0.42)      
ESbetween(CI 95%)   0.13 (-0.28-0.54)    1. 03   
  1. ES Effect Sizes calculated according to Hedges [40], CI Confidence intervals were calculated using formulas according to Hedges and Olkin [40]. Boldface data show CIs not covering zero.
  2. EDE-Q Eating Disorder Questionnaire, EDI-2 Eating Disorder Inventory - 2, BITE Bulimia Investigatory Test Edinburgh.