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Table 2 Psychotropic treatment by type of bipolar disorder among patients attending an out–patient tertiary care service

From: Pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder and concordance with treatment guidelines: survey of a general population sample referred to a tertiary care service

  Bipolar I disorder (N = 32) Bipolar II disorder (N = 81) Total Daily dosage min–max
  N (%) N (%) N (%) Mg
Lithium 20 (62.5) 15 (18.5) * 35 (31.0) 300–1950
Anticonvulsants 10 (31.3) 36 (44.4) 46 (40.7)  
  Valproate 3 (9.4) 14 (17.3) 17 (15) 250–2000
  Carbamazepine 1 (3.1) 0 1 (0.9) 600
  Lamotrigine 6 (18.8) 13 (16) 19 (16.8) 50–500
  Gabapentin 1 (3.1) 6 (7.4) 7 (6.2) 300–1600
  Topiramate 1 (3.1) 9 (11.1) 10 (8.8) 25–200
  Levetiracetam 0 1 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 250
Antidepressants 17 (53.1) 54 (66.7) 71 (62.8)  
  SSRIs 7 (21.9) 27 (33.3) 34 (30.1)  
  Citalopram 4 (12.5) 10 (12.3) 14 (12.4) 20–80
  Escitalopram 1 (3.1) 12 (14.8) 13 (11.5) 5–40
  Fluoxetine 1 (3.1) 1 (1.2) 2 (1.8) 20
  Fluvoxamine 1 (3.1) 0 1 (0.9) 200
  Paroxetine 0 2 (2.5) 2 (1.8) 40–60
  Sertraline 0 2 (2.5) 2 (1.8) 100–200
SNRI 9 (28.1) 13 (16.0) 22 (19.5)  
  Duloxetine 0 1 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 60
  Venlafaxine 9 (28.1) 12 (14.8) 21 (18.6) 75–300
Moclobemide 0 1 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 600
Antidepressants Tricyclic 1 (3.1) 5 (6.2) 6 (5.3)  
  Amitriptyline 1 (3.1) 4 (4.9) 5 (4.4) 10–100
  Trimipramine 0 1 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 50
Other antidepressants 6 (18.8) 27 (33.3) 33 (29.2)  
  Bupropion 2 (6.3) 13 (16.0) 15 (13.3) 100–450
  Mirtazapine 0 4 (4.9) 4 (3.5) 7.5–60
  Trazodone 5 (15.6) 13 (16.0) 18 (15.9) 50–200
Anxiolytics benzodiazepines 10 (31.3) 16 (19.8) 26 (23.0)  
Neuroleptics 18 (56.3) 33 (40.7) 51 (45.1)  
Neuroleptics first generation 2 (6.3) 4 (4.9) 6 (5.3)  
  Methotrimeprazine 1 (3.1) 4 (4.9) 5 (4.4) 10–125
  Trifluoperazine 1 (3.1) 0 1 (0.9) 3
Neuroleptics second generation 17 (53.1) 30 (37.0) 47 (41.6)  
  Olanzapine 7 (21.9) 6 (7.4) 13 (11.5) 2.5–20
  Quetiapine 8 (25.0) 18 (22.2) 26 (23.0) 12.5–450
  Risperidone 2 (6.3) 8 (9.9) 10 (8.8) 0.5–2.00
Stimulants – methylphenidate 0 1 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 5
Hypnotics – Zopiclone 0 5 (6.2) 5 (4.4) 3.75–30
No psychotropics 0 8 (90.0) 8 (7.0)  
  1. * p < 0.001 NS.