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Table 1 Demographic, health and lifestyle factors for nursing home (n = 108), hostel (n = 205) and community (n = 313) sample of elderly persons

From: Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors

  Residential status Group comparison Multiple comparisons
  Nursing home (NH) Hostel (H) Community (C)   NH vsH Z NH vsC Z H vsC Z
Gender (female) % (n) 57.4 (62) 58.0 (119) 57.8 (181) 0.0    
Income (< $30,000 per annum) % (n) 83.1 (59) 75.0 (87) 70.8 (165) 4.3    
QOL scores (good/v. good/excellent) % (n) 56.3 (58) 61.2 (115) 83.8 (244) 43.4** 0.7 32.2b 31.3b
K10 score (10–50) med (IQR) 14.0 (9.0) 14.0 (7.0) 12.0 (4.0) 29.1** −0.02 −3.7b −4.9b
Age (years) med (IQR) 83.2 (14.9) 82.2 (12.6) 80.8 (4.9) 8.6* −4.5 −2.1 −2.6a
Physical health burden (0–5) med (IQR) 1.0 (2.0) 1.0 (1.0) 1.0 (1.0) 6.7* −1.1 −0.9 −2.6a
Functional limitations (0–100) med (IQR) 10.0 (68.3) 30.0 (50.0) 70.0 (55.0) 91.9** −2.9b −7.2b −8.1b
Physical activity (mins per week) med (IQR) 60.0 (420.0) 150.0 (495.0) 270.0 (629.0) 32.2** −2.0 −5.1 −4.1b
Sleep (hours per day) med (IQR) 9.0 (5.0) 8.0 (3.0) 8.0 (2.0) 12.4** −1.5 −3.2b −2.4a
Time outdoors (hours per week) med (IQR) 7.0 (20.0) 9.0 (18.8) 16.0 (19.0) 45.9** −2.0 −5.8b −5.1b
Social support (scaled scores) med (IQR) 8.0 (3.0) 8.0 (2.5) 9.0 (2.0) 27.6** −0.2 −3.6b −4.8b
Alcohol (drinks per week) med (IQR) 0 (3.8) 0 (3.0) 2.0 (7.0) 21.5** −0.2 −3.3b −4.1b
Sitting (hours per day) med (IQR) 8.0 (7.0) 7.0 (6.0) 5.0 (3.0) 34.3** −1.4 −5.4b −4.1b
  1. Note: Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests used due to skewed and/or unequal distributions, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01; Multiple comparisons for continuous/ordinal data conducted with Mann Whitney U, Test (Z statistic reported), with a Bonferroni correction to the alpha level of 0.05/3 (0.017) and for categorical data conducted with Chi Squared. a denotes p < 0.017, b denotes p <0.01.
  2. NH, nursing home; H, hostel; C, community; med, median; IQR, Interquartile Range.