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Table 5 Multivariable GEE model 1 and adjusted odds ratio for child gross motor development (N=385)

From: Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95%confidence interval
Child’s gender   
Female 1.0 -
Male 1.7 (1.05, 2.9)
Child stunted   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.7 (0.9, 3.0)
Child had difficulty in breast feeding   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.7 (0.8, 3.7)
Mother’s education   
Matric or above 1.0 -
Below Matric2 1.8 (1.01, 3.2)
Study area   
Manzoor Colony 1.0 -
Qayoomabad 1.6 (0.8, 2.9)
Interaction between mother’s depression & month of follow-up   
2nd Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.5 (0.3, 7.0)
6th Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 0.7 (0.1, 3.4)
12th Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 2.8 (1.2, 6.6)
  1. 1Adjusting for mother’s age, total number of children alive, domestic abuse and month-follow-up (modeled as cubic polynomial).
  2. Exchangeable correlation structure, QIC =605.61 QICu= 602.36.
  3. 2Below Matric refers to any level of education below Matric, Read & Write Only or Illiterate.
  4. 32nd month of follow-up is 25th percentile, 6th month the median and 12th month the 75th percentile of follow-up month values.