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Table 8 Invariance testing on reduced GHQ-28 item subscales for BiB1000

From: The psychometric properties of the subscales of the GHQ-28 in a multi-ethnic maternal sample: results from the Born in Bradford cohort

  (Pakistani) English (White) English (Other)
  Antenatal Postnatal Antenatal Postnatal Antenatal Postnatal
Reduced Somatic subscale A (Items 1–4)       
English (White) L: 0.004, -0.010 L: -0.003, -0.010     
I: 0.013, -0.012 I: 0.056, -0.020     
English (Other) L: 0.004, -0.014 L: 0.000, -0.011 L: 0.003, -0.019 L: -0.001, -0.013   
I: -0.006, 0.001 I: 0.007, -0.010 I: 0.007, -0.002 I: 0.015, -0.001
Urdu (Pakistani) L: -0.006, -0.003 L: 0.000, -0.008 L: 0.000, -0.012 L: -0.003, -0.010 L: 0.000, -0.008 L: 0.000, -0.011
  I: 0.017, -0.011 I: 0.000, -0.004 I: 0.009, -0.007 I: 0.005, -0.004 I: 0.003, -0.017 I: 0.000, 0.000
Reduced Anxiety and Insomnia subscale B (Items 10–13)       
English (White) L: 0.000, -0.015 L: 0.002, -0.017     
I: 0.034, -0.021 I: 0.006, -0.004
English (Other) L: 0.000, -0.003 L: 0.013, -0.031 L: 0.000, -0.006 L: 0.001, -0.016   
I: 0.002, -0.009 -- I: 0.000, -0.011 I: 0.010, -0.006
Urdu (Pakistani) L: 0.001, -0.015 L: 0.003, -0.015 L: 0.006, -0.022 L: 0.005, -0.017 L: 0.006, -0.024 L: 0.040, -0.038
  I: 0.020, -0.015 I: 0.018, -0.008 I: 0.028, -0.016 I: 0.009, -0.005 I: 0.079, -0.026 --
Reduced Social Dysfunction subscale C (Items 15–19)       
English (White) L: -0.004, 0.013 L: -0.002, -0.011     
I: 0.003, -0.001 I: 0.004, -0.001
English (Other) L: 0.010, -0.024 L: -0.002, 0.007 L: 0.001, -0.025 L: 0.012, -0.018   
I: -0.001, 0.001 I: -0.002, -0.002 I: 0.009, 0.003 I: 0.000, 0.001
Urdu (Pakistani) L: 0.008, -0.018 L: -0.015, -0.009 L: 0.001, -0.022 L: -0.010, -0.008 L: -0.001, -0.017 L: 0.004, -0.025
  I: 0.028, -0.015 I: 0.024, -0.003 I: 0.046, -0.018 I: 0.020, -0.004 I: 0.055, -0.014 I: -0.003, 0.000
Reduced Severe Depression subscale D (Items 23–26)       
English (White) L: -0.011, -0.003 L: 0.001, -0.007     
I: 0.033, -0.022 I: 0.018, -0.003
English (Other) L: -0.016, -0.008 L: 0.082, -0.065 L: -0.006, -0.011 *   
I: 0.009, 0.004 -- I: 0.022, -0.014
Urdu (Pakistani) * * * L: 0.072, -0.054-- * *
  1. Numbers indicate change in CFI, SRMR from less restrictive model, bolded items indicate invariance not achieved, L factor loadings constrained to be equal, I intercepts constrained to be equal, * severe model estimation difficulties.