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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis results for the association between parent-adolescent interaction and AIA development a,b

From: Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai

Potential risk factors N Odds ratio (95% CI)
   Base Model 1 c (Un-adjusted) Model 2 d (Adjusted)
Parental attitude toward adolescent internet use 5104   
Agree 441 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Relatively agree 1688 0.90(0.59-1.36) 1.05(0.67-1.64)
General 1437 1.25(0.83-1.88) 1.08(0.69-1.69)
Relatively disagree 1312 1.72(1.15-2.57)** e 1.54(0.98-2.40)
Strongly disagree 226 2.42(1.45-4.05)** e 2.20(1.24-3.91)** e
Mother-adolescent relationship 5105   
Very good 3137 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Relatively good 1353 1.93(1.55-2.41)*** 1.25 (0.95-1.66)
General 522 2.16(1.61-2.90)*** 1.20 (0.83-1.73)
Very & relatively bad 93 6.76(4.26-10.73)*** 3.79 (2.22-6.48)***
Father-adolescent relationship 5103   
Very good 2691 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Relatively good 1332 1.76(1.39-2.24)*** 1.32(0.98-1.76)
General 888 2.24(1.74-2.89)*** 1.39(0.99-1.93)
Very & relatively bad 192 3.46(2.32-5.15)*** 1.76(1.10-2.80)*
Parental marriage 5118   
Married-and-together 4477 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Married-but-separated 81 2.32(1.29-4.17)** 2.06(1.05-4.06)*
Divorced 360 1.55(1.11-2.16)* 1.14 (0.74-1.75)
Widowed 86 1.30(0.65-2.61) 1.52 (0.66-3.47)
Remarried 114 1.43(0.79-2.57) 1.13 (0.61-2.10)
Family structure 5122   
Nuclear family 3380 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
Three-generation family 1069 0.87(0.67-1.12) 0.84(0.64-1.11)
Single-parent family 357 1.63(1.17-2.26)* 1.19(0.79-1.79)
Left-behind adolescents 181 1.49(0.94-2.37) 1.26(0.76-2.08)
Weekend parents 135 1.14(0.64-2.05) 0.94(0.50-1.76)
Monthly allowance levels 5108   
Among resident students 451   
<100 RMB/month 105 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
100 ~ 299 RMB/month 154 0.66(0.24-1.83) 0.59(0.20-1.76)
300 ~ 599 RMB/month 131 1.34(0.53-3.36)* 1.15(0.43-3.13)
>600 RMB/month 61 3.61(1.42-9.21)** 3.60(1.27-10.20)*
Among commuter students 4657   
<100 RMB/month 2671 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
100 ~ 299 RMB/month 1418 1.85(1.47-2.32)*** 1.64(1.28-2.11)***
300 ~ 599 RMB/month 410 2.36(1.72-3.25)*** 1.75(1.22-2.50)**
>600 RMB/month 158 2.00(1.21-3.31)** 1.32(0.76-2.31)
  1. aAIA = adolescent internet addiction.
  2. bThe logistic regressions were fitted to model the possibility of adolescent having AIA. We set ‶0″ for adolescents with total scores of DRM 52 scale <163 and ‶1″ for adolescents with total scores ≥163.
  3. cIn Base Model 1, only family background variables were included.
  4. dIn model 2, family background variables (same variables in Base Model 1) and other related variables including grades, types of schools, monthly consumption expenditure levels, academic achievement levels and family social economic status were adjusted. Two variables including family structure and marital status were forced in this model.
  5. e***indicated p < 0.001, **indicated p < 0.01, *indicated p < 0.05.